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Brain and Behavior

Cover image for Vol. 2 Issue 5

September 2012

Volume 2, Issue 5

Pages i–i, 525–706

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Reviews
    5. Methods
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Issue Information (page i)

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.94

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Reviews
    5. Methods
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Gene expression profiles associated with depression in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CH-C) (pages 525–531)

      Aybike Birerdinc, Arian Afendy, Maria Stepanova, Issah Younossi, Ancha Baranova and Zobair M. Younossi

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.72

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      Our data demonstrate a significant down-regulation of TGF-β1 and dysregulation of Th1–Th2 cytokine balance in the depression associated with IFN-based treatment of HCV infection. We propose that TGF-β1 play an important role in the imbalance of Th1/Th2 in patients with hepatitis C and depression. With further validation, TGF-β1 and other components of Th1/Th2 regulation pathway may provide a future marker for hepatitis C patients predisposed to depression.

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      The effects of acute responsive high frequency stimulation of the subiculum on the intra-hippocampal kainic acid seizure model in rats (pages 532–540)

      L. Huang and G. van Luijtelaar

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.70

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      Acute responsive subicular stimulation suppressed focal seizures and interictal spikes without disrupting ongoing seizures in a kainic acid seizure model in rats. Such anticonvulsant effects of acute subicular stimulation indicate that the subiculum is involved in seizure generation.

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      Characterization of recovered walking patterns and motor control after contusive spinal cord injury in rats (pages 541–552)

      Christopher N. Hansen, William Linklater III, Raquel Santiago, Lesley C. Fisher, Stephanie Moran, John A. Buford and D. Michele Basso

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.71

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      Following contusive spinal cord injury, we show that significant deficits are evident in eccentric actions of the semitendinosus (ST) during locomotion. Our findings suggest that ST serves as a novel indicator of recovery and may provide opportunities for targeted rehabilitation.

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      The association between cingulate cortex glutamate concentration and delay discounting is mediated by resting state functional connectivity (pages 553–562)

      Lianne Schmaal, Anna E. Goudriaan, Johan van der Meer, Wim van den Brink and Dick J. Veltman

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.74

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      The level of delay discounting is a relatively stable psychological trait and therefore delay discounting is likely to be based on the functional organization of the brain. Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) glutamate concentrations were associated with delay discounting and resting state functional connectivity of the ACC mediated this relationship.

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      Deletion of galectin-3 exacerbates microglial activation and accelerates disease progression and demise in a SOD1 G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (pages 563–575)

      Bruce J. Lerman, Eric P. Hoffman, Margaret L. Sutherland, Khaled Bouri, Daniel K. Hsu, Fu-Tong Liu, Jeffrey D. Rothstein and Susan M. Knoblach

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.75

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      Expression studies revealed increases in galectins in spinal cords from SOD1G93A mice, and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients, where galectin-3 was primarily expressed by microglia. Galectin-3 deletion did not change disease onset in SOD1G93A mice, but resulted in more rapid progression through functional disease stages, more severe neurological symptoms at all stages, and expiration, on average, 25 days earlier than SOD1G93A/Gal-3 +/+ cohorts. Microglial staining, as well as TNF-α, and oxidative injury were also increased. These data support an important functional role for microglial galectin-3 in chronic neurodegenerative disease.

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      Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power of the “Brief Risk-resilience Index for SCreening,” a brief pan-diagnostic web screen for emotional health (pages 576–589)

      Leanne M. Williams, Nicholas J. Cooper, Stephen R. Wisniewski, Justine M. Gatt, Stephen H. Koslow, Jayashri Kulkarni, Savannah DeVarney, Evian Gordon and Augustus John Rush

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.76

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      Few standardized tools are available for time-efficient screening of emotional health status across diagnostic categories, especially in primary care. We report on the development of the Brief Risk-resilience Index for SCreening (BRISC) in n = 1079 participants spanning healthy and six diagnostic groups. The BRISC offers a clinically useful screen, for distinguishing individuals with poor emotional regulation from those with good emotional health and coping, with high accuracy (81.2%, specificity: 92.7%, positive predictive power: 80.2%, and negative predictive power: 93.1%).

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      Maximum carotid artery wall thickness and risk factors in a young primary prevention population (pages 590–594)

      A. S. Callahan III, Michael Szarek, John W. Patton, Anne-Sophie Sillesen, Abrill Jones, Keith Churchwell and H. Douglas Holliday

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.82

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      Rate of carotid intima–media thickness (IMT) accretion identifies plaque formation at early ages permitting risk attribution prior to achieving a specific wall thickness. An increase in systolic blood pressure at baseline is associated with higher accretion rates, while traditional risk factors do not identify future risk. This novel measure may prove to have utility in guiding earlier treatment for vascular risk reduction.

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      Role of C-terminal negative charges and tyrosine residues in fibril formation of α-synuclein (pages 595–605)

      Yasutaka Izawa, Hironobu Tateno, Hiroshi Kameda, Kazuya Hirakawa, Keiko Hato, Hisashi Yagi, Kunihiro Hongo, Tomohiro Mizobata and Yasushi Kawata

      Article first published online: 10 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.86

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      C-terminal negative charges and Tyr136 are important in controlling fibril formation of α-synuclein.

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      Altered integration of speech and gesture in children with autism spectrum disorders (pages 606–619)

      Amy L. Hubbard, Kristin McNealy, Ashley A. Scott-Van Zeeland, Daniel E. Callan, Susan Y. Bookheimer and Mirella Dapretto

      Article first published online: 10 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.81

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      The presence of gesture during speech has been shown to impact perception, comprehension, learning, and memory in normal adults and typically developing children. In neurotypical individuals, the impact of viewing co-speech gestures representing an object and/or action (i.e., iconic gesture) or speech rhythm (i.e., beat gesture) has also been observed at the neural level. Yet, despite growing evidence of delayed gesture development in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), few studies have examined how the brain processes multimodal communicative cues occurring during everyday communication in individuals with ASD. Here, we used a previously validated fMRI paradigm to examine the neural processing of co-speech beat gesture in children with ASD and matched controls.

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      Mild cognitive impairment: effect of education on the verbal and nonverbal tasks performance decline (pages 620–627)

      Konstantinos Vadikolias, Anna Tsiakiri-Vatamidis, Grigorios Tripsianis, Georgios Tsivgoulis, Panagiotis Ioannidis, Aspasia Serdari, John Heliopoulos, Miltos Livaditis and Charitomeni Piperidou

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.88

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      Is education related with verbal and nonverbal tasks performance decline? We evaluated low- and high-educated subjects with MCI, age >50 years, no medication intake, absent vascular risk factors, and no lesions on brain MRI. Each patient underwent a clinical assessment packet and a series of neuropsychological verbal and nonverbal tasks at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months.

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      The expression of nicotinic receptor alpha7 during cochlear development (pages 628–639)

      Scott W. Rogers, Elizabeth J. Myers and Lorise C. Gahring

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.84

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      We have examined nicotinic receptor alpha7 expression in the developing mouse cochlear sensory structure and adult central auditory pathways. Our findings suggest that both neuronal and non-neuronal cells express this receptor. Furthermore, there are dramatic variations in receptor expression patterns throughout development that suggest alpha7 could impact on multiple auditory functions through mechanisms that are not traditionally attributed to this receptor.

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      Alteration of synergistic muscle activity following neuromuscular electrical stimulation of one muscle (pages 640–646)

      Norman Stutzig, Tobias Siebert, Urs Granacher and Reinhard Blickhan

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.87

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      The study examined neuromuscular compensating strategies of synergistic muscles. Therefore, we fatigued the m. gastrocnemius lateralis solely using neuromuscular electrical stimulation, measured the muscle activities of the calf muscles and their force during maximal isometric plantar flexions. We found reduced muscle activity in the fatigued m. gastrocnemius lateralis and increased muscle activity in the m. soleus while muscle force remained unchanged.

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      Functional deficits of the attentional networks in autism (pages 647–660)

      Jin Fan, Silvia Bernardi, Nicholas T. Van Dam, Evdokia Anagnostou, Xiaosi Gu, Laura Martin, Yunsoo Park, Xun Liu, Alexander Kolevzon, Latha Soorya, David Grodberg, Eric Hollander and Patrick R. Hof

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.90

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      Differences (healthy controls greater than individuals with autism spectrum disorders) in brain activation corresponding to the measures of network effects.

  3. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Reviews
    5. Methods
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Prescription stimulants in individuals with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: misuse, cognitive impact, and adverse effects (pages 661–677)

      Shaheen E. Lakhan and Annette Kirchgessner

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.78

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      Prescription stimulants are often used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Drugs like methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), and dextroamphetamine-amphetamine (Adderall) help people with ADHD feel more focused. However, misuse of stimulants by ADHD and nonaffected individuals has dramatically increased over recent years based on students' misconceptions or simple lack of knowledge of associated risks. Given the widespread belief that stimulants enhance performance, there are in fact only a few studies reporting the cognitive enhancing effects of stimulants in ADHD and nonaffected individuals. Moreover, these drugs are associated with dangers including myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, and even sudden death.

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      Behavioral testing in rodent models of orofacial neuropathic and inflammatory pain (pages 678–697)

      Agnieszka Krzyzanowska and Carlos Avendaño

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.85

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      This comprehensive review of the currently used rodent models of orofacial inflammatory and neuropathic pain examines the available testing methods and procedures used for assessing the behavioral responses in the face in both mice and rats. It also provides a summary of some pharmacological agents used in these paradigms and the use of these agents in animal models is also compared with outcomes observed in the clinic.

  4. Methods

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Reviews
    5. Methods
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Stratification substantially reduces behavioral variability in the hypoxic–ischemic stroke model (pages 698–706)

      Julia Pollak, Kristian P. Doyle, Lauren Mamer, Mehrdad Shamloo and Marion S. Buckwalter

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.77

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      We studied a panel of behavioral tests after hypoxic–ischemic stroke. Performance on a horizontal ladder task 1 day after stroke was found to be useful for predicting stroke size and can be used to identify mice with large strokes. The group with >18% foot faults on the ladder task had larger strokes and exhibited significant functional deficits for weeks on the horizontal ladder, automated gait analysis, rotarod, and elevated body swing test (EBST).

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