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Brain and Behavior

Cover image for Vol. 3 Issue 2

March 2013

Volume 3, Issue 2

Pages i–ii, 43–205

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Methods
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      Issue Information (pages i–ii)

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.134

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Methods
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Intravenous injection of neural progenitor cells facilitates angiogenesis after cerebral ischemia (pages 43–53)

      Yoshiyuki Moriyama, Norio Takagi, Kanae Hashimura, Chisa Itokawa and Kouichi Tanonaka

      Article first published online: 28 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.113

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      Earlier we demonstrated that the injection of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) has therapeutic potential for the improvement of learning dysfunction after cerebral ischemia. However, it remained to be clarified how transplantation of NPCs can improve ischemia-induced dysfunction. In this study, we demonstrated that the injection of NPCs even on day 7 after cerebral ischemia enhanced angiogenesis on day 28.

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      Attention-dependent modulation of neural activity in primary sensorimotor cortex (pages 54–66)

      Annette Milnik, Isabella Nowak and Notger G. Müller

      Article first published online: 4 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.114

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      Although motor tasks at most times do not require much attention, there are findings that attention can alter neuronal activity not only in higher motor areas but also within the primary sensorimotor cortex. We found that distraction reduced neuronal activity in both contra- and ipsilateral primary sensorimotor cortex when the nondominant hand was tapping in both handedness groups. We conclude that difficulty and training status of both the motor and the distraction task, as well as usage of the dominant versus the nondominant hand, are crucial for the presence and magnitude of attention effects on sensorimotor cortex activity.

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      Galantamine potentiates the neuroprotective effect of memantine against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity (pages 67–74)

      João P. Lopes, Glauco Tarozzo, Angelo Reggiani, Daniele Piomelli and Andrea Cavalli

      Article first published online: 11 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.118

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      We investigated the neuroprotective effects of galantamine and memantine, alone and in combination, on rat primary cortical neurons against an NMDA excitotoxic challenge. Combinations of individually nonactive concentrations of the two drugs afford full neuroprotection, through pathways involving NR2B-containing NMDA receptors and nicotinic receptors.

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      Gene therapy with AAV2-CDNF provides functional benefits in a rat model of Parkinson's disease (pages 75–88)

      Susanne Bäck, Johan Peränen, Emilia Galli, Päivi Pulkkila, Liina Lonka-Nevalaita, Tuulia Tamminen, Merja H. Voutilainen, Atso Raasmaja, Mart Saarma, Pekka T. Männistö and Raimo K. Tuominen

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.117

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      The neuroprotective effect of cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) delivered with a recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) serotype 2 vector was studied in a rat 6-hydroxydopamine (6-ODHA) model of Parkinson's disease. Delivery of AAV2-CDNF into the striatum gave rise to a long-lasting expression of the protein. When given 2 weeks before 6-OHDA, AAV2-CDNF resulted in a marked decrease in amphetamine-induced ipsilateral rotations and provided partial protection of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells in the rat substantia nigra.

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      Baseline thyroid indices and the subsequent response to citalopram treatment, a pilot study (pages 89–94)

      Osama A. Abulseoud, Michael Gitlin, Lori Altshuler and Mark A. Frye

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.109

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      Baseline thyroid function, as measured by serum free T4 and TSH, may predict a patient's response time to antidepressant treatment with citalopram.

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      Brain processing of pain in patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (pages 95–103)

      Alexandra Markl, Tao Yu, Dominik Vogel, Friedemann Müller, Boris Kotchoubey and Simone Lang

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.110

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      By definition, patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) do not experience pain, but it remains unknown as how far their brain can process noxious stimuli. The data indicate that some patients completely fulfilling the clinical UWS criteria may be able to experience pain.

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      Respiratory and behavioral dysfunction following loss of the GABAA receptor α4 subunit (pages 104–113)

      C. Jean Loria, Ashley M. Stevens, Ellen Crummy, Gemma Casadesus, Frank J. Jacono, Thomas E. Dick and Ruth E. Siegel

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.122

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      Knockout of the GABAA receptor α4 subunit in mice led to changes in the breathing pattern (reduced variability) and increased anxiety-like behavior. α4 subunit loss also resulted in reduced expression of other extrasynaptic (α6 and δ) subunit mRNAs in the pons without changes in the most prominent synaptic subunits. These findings suggest that the regulation of extrasynaptic GABAA receptor subunits in the pons influences respiratory control and adaptation to stress.

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      Brief alcohol exposure alters transcription in astrocytes via the heat shock pathway (pages 114–133)

      Leonardo Pignataro, Florence P. Varodayan, Lindsay E. Tannenholz, Petr Protiva and Neil L. Harrison

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.125

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      The presence of ethanol alters the redox state of astrocytes, triggering an increase in expression of genes related to oxidoreductases, antioxidants, stress, and apoptosis. We also observed the regulation of genes that control the immune response, as well as those involved in acetyl-CoA and lipid metabolism. The data presented in this work suggest that a significant subset of the astrocyte alcohol-sensitive genes are regulated by HSF1, perhaps via the genetic alcohol-responsive element (ARE).

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      Human hippocampal energy metabolism is impaired during cognitive activity in a lipid infusion model of insulin resistance (pages 134–144)

      Yaso Emmanuel, Lowri E. Cochlin, Damian J. Tyler, Celeste A. de Jager, A. David Smith and Kieran Clarke

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.124

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      The physiological role of insulin in brain glucose uptake has not previously been well characterized. We propose that the kinetics of insulin mediated glucose uptake are such that in the brain, it may play a role in facilitating the required acute rapid increases in neuronal glucose uptake in response to cognitive activity. We present data from a new in vivo experimental in vivo approach which supports this proposed role.

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      Early presymptomatic cholinergic dysfunction in a murine model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (pages 145–158)

      Caty Casas, Mireia Herrando-Grabulosa, Raquel Manzano, Renzo Mancuso, Rosario Osta and Xavier Navarro

      Article first published online: 17 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.104

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      In the SOD1G93A ALS mouse model, an early reduction in ChAT mRNA and protein content was observed within motoneurons (MNs) somata and cholinergic synaptic boutons apposed onto lumbar spinal MNs at very early presymptomatic stage, by 30 days of life, time before the characteristic denervation occurs. Concurrent events by that time are the presence of mild oxidative stress and an increase in Tdp-43 nuclear accumulation within MNs which is involved in ChAT transcript processing.

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      Electrophysiological analysis of the role of novelty in the von Restorff effect (pages 159–170)

      Mauricio Rangel-Gomez and Martijn Meeter

      Article first published online: 17 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.112

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      The von Restorff effect is a suitable way to research the effect of novelty on learning. Nevertheless, the electrophysiology of this effect goes beyond the widely accepted novelty related ERP components. Indicating that the relation between novelty and learning is more complex than thought before.

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      Melatonin modulates baroreflex control via area postrema (pages 171–177)

      Luciana A. Campos, Jose Cipolla-Neto and Lisete C. Michelini

      Article first published online: 17 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.123

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      We aimed at studying the effects of melatonin on baroreflex sensitivity and the role of area postrema, as a component modulator of baroreflex arch. Melatonin produced a downward shift of baroreceptor reflex control, which was abolished in the area postrema-ablated group. We conclude that melatonin can modulate baroreceptor reflex via melatonin receptors in the area postrema.

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      Neuromagnetic activation following active and passive finger movements (pages 178–192)

      Hideaki Onishi, Kazuhiro Sugawara, Koya Yamashiro, Daisuke Sato, Makoto Suzuki, Hikari Kirimoto, Hiroyuki Tamaki, Hiroatsu Murakami and Shigeki Kameyama

      Article first published online: 17 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.126

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      This study examined detailed neuromagnetic activation following passive movements (PMs). Two peaks of magnetoencephalography (MEG) response associated with passive finger movement were recorded. The source of first peak after PM was estimated to be at area 4, and the second sources were estimated to be at supplementary motor area (SMA) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC).

  3. Methods

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Methods
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      HIRREM™: a noninvasive, allostatic methodology for relaxation and auto-calibration of neural oscillations (pages 193–205)

      Lee Gerdes, Peter Gerdes, Sung W. Lee and Charles H. Tegeler

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.116

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      HIRREM is a noninvasive, allostatic technology that facilitates relaxation and auto-calibration of neural oscillations, toward states of greater neural oscillatory symmetry and more optimized proportionation of spectral power. Auditory tones are presented to resonate with a client's dominant EEG frequencies in near real time. Individuals in a clinical trial of HIRREM for insomnia showed less temporal lobe asymmetry after eight sessions, and there was a trend for asymmetry reduction to correlate with insomnia symptom reduction.

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