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Brain and Behavior

Cover image for Vol. 3 Issue 4

July 2013

Volume 3, Issue 4

Pages i–ii, 329–493

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Reviews
    4. Methods
    5. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Issue Information (pages i–ii)

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.156

  2. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Reviews
    4. Methods
    5. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Long-term control of large pontine arteriovenous malformation using gamma knife therapy: a review with illustrative case (pages 329–334)

      Martin M. Mortazavi, Daxa Patel, Christoph J. Griessenauer, R. Shane Tubbs and Winfield S. Fisher III

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.149

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      Long-term control of large pontine arteriovenous malformations using gamma knife therapy is controversial. This review discusses the current literature on this topic and shows an illustrative case.

  3. Methods

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Reviews
    4. Methods
    5. Original Research
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      Characterization of early pathogenesis in the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS: part I, background and methods (pages 335–350)

      Sharon Vinsant, Carol Mansfield, Ramon Jimenez-Moreno, Victoria Del Gaizo Moore, Masaaki Yoshikawa, Thomas G. Hampton, David Prevette, James Caress, Ronald W. Oppenheim and Carol Milligan

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.143

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      Here, we describe rationale and methods for our extensive analysis that included ultrastructural examination of central and peripheral components of the neuromuscular system in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1G93A) mouse and correlated these alterations with early muscle denervation, motor dysfunction, and motoneuron death. We also provide a review of published work describing pathology in the SOD1 mouse model. In the companion paper we present the experimental results, discuss our interpretation of these findings, and summarize the chronology of pathogenesis. The significance of this work is that we have examined early pathology in both spinal cord and peripheral neuromuscular system and demonstrate that a thorough characterization of animal models throughout the life span is critical to design preclinical trials that will produce meaningful results.

  4. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Reviews
    4. Methods
    5. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A phenotypic model recapitulating the neuropathology of Parkinson's disease (pages 351–366)

      Craig F. Ferris, Mathieu Marella, Brian Smerkers, Thomas M. Barchet, Benjamin Gershman, Akemi Matsuno-Yagi and Takao Yagi

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.138

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      This is a model of Parkinson's disease in rats recapitulating all of the molecular and cellular biomarkers associated with human disease including Lewy bodies.

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      B6eGFPChAT mice overexpressing the vesicular acetylcholine transporter exhibit spontaneous hypoactivity and enhanced exploration in novel environments (pages 367–383)

      Paul M. Nagy and Isabelle Aubert

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.139

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      Cholinergic innervation is extensive throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. We used the hypercholinergic B6eGFPChAT congenic mouse model, shown to overexpression the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), and present data to suggest that modest increases in VAChT expression can have a significant effect on spontaneous locomotion, reaction to novel stimuli and the adaptation to novel environments.

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      An fMRI investigation of delay discounting in patients with schizophrenia (pages 384–401)

      Kathy Burton Avsar, Rosalyn Eve Weller, James Edward Cox, Meredith Amanda Reid, David Matthew White and Adrienne Carol Lahti

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.135

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      fMRI in patients with schizophrenia was performed during a delay-discounting task. Patients compared with matched controls showed increased task-related activation in regions of the DMN and reduced activation in regions associated with executive, reward, and emotional networks.

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      Effect of language task demands on the neural response during lexical access: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study (pages 402–416)

      Gabriela Gan, Christian Büchel and Frédéric Isel

      Article first published online: 1 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.133

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      To clarify the functional role of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) for semantic processing with respect to semantic decision making compared to semantic processing per se, we used a linguistic task that involved either a binary decision process (i.e., semantic categorization; Experiment 1) or not (silently thinking about a word's meaning; Experiment 2). With the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we showed that the same left-lateralized temporo-frontal network including the IFG is recruited during lexical-semantic processing irrespective of linguistic task demands. The present findings give rise to the assumption that activation of the IFG in the semantic domain might be important for semantic processing in general and not only for semantic decision making.

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      Enhanced peripheral nerve regeneration by the combination of a polycaprolactone tubular prosthesis and a scaffold of collagen with supramolecular organization (pages 417–430)

      Luiz G. Maturana, Amauri Pierucci, Gustavo F. Simões, Mateus Vidigal, Eliana A. R. Duek, Benedicto C. Vidal and Alexandre L. R. Oliveira

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.145

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      The present work evaluated the axonal regeneration following tubulization of the sciatic nerve by using a collagen scaffold combined with a polycaprolactone (PCL) prosthesis. The results showed a better regeneration process when the nerves were repaired with the PCL tube associated with the collagen with molecular supraorganization.

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      Characterization of early pathogenesis in the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS: part II, results and discussion (pages 431–457)

      Sharon Vinsant, Carol Mansfield, Ramon Jimenez-Moreno, Victoria Del Gaizo Moore, Masaaki Yoshikawa, Thomas G. Hampton, David Prevette, James Caress, Ronald W. Oppenheim and Carol Milligan

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.142

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      Here, we have examined early pathology in both the spinal cord and peripheral neuromuscular system. The results are important in showing that initial muscle denervation is associated with functional motor deficits and begins during the first postnatal month in SOD1G93A mice. Even prior to this, our results and those from other investigators suggest that physiological dysfunction and pathology in the mitochondria of synapses and MN soma and dendrites occur. These results strongly suggest that disease onset in these animals begins more than 2 months earlier than originally thought. This information may be valuable for designing preclinical trials that are more likely to impact disease onset and progression.

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      Greater brain volumes are activated when performing simple calculating tasks in persons accustomed to lower altitudes than those to higher altitudes (pages 458–463)

      Yan L. Jiang, Willmann Liang, Hong Yao and David T. Yew

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.148

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      Cognitive ability measured by a simple calculation task was compared between lowlanders and highlanders for the first time. The results showed that while the task was completed successfully by all subjects, the highlanders did so using smaller brain regions than the lowlanders. This apparent difference in brain activation may be attributed to neural signaling modifications as a result of chronic exposure to high altitude. It will therefore be interesting to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in the future.

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      Sustained and transient attentional processes modulate neural predictors of memory encoding in consecutive time periods (pages 464–475)

      Tullia Padovani, Thomas Koenig, Doris Eckstein and Walter J. Perrig

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.150

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      Investigating preparatory processes that enable predicting later recollection we analyzed the event-related potentials (ERPs) difference between subsequently remembered and forgotten items defined as prestimulus subsequent memory effect (SME). To clarify the nature and the time course of these preparatory processes we considered the contribution of sustained and transient attentional mechanisms involved in two different learning conditions: one characterized by the repetition of the same task across two or more consecutive trials (stay trials) and the other characterized by switching between different task sets (switch trials). We found an SME for stay trials in a time window from 2 to 1 sec before target onset, followed by SME for switch trials in a time window from 1 to 0 sec before target onset. These findings suggest that sustained and transient attentional processes contribute to the prestimulus SME in consecutive time periods.

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      Extensive morphological and immunohistochemical characterization in myotubular myopathy (pages 476–486)

      Minobu Shichiji, Valérie Biancalana, Michel Fardeau, Jean-Yves Hogrel, Makiko Osawa, Jocelyn Laporte and Norma Beatriz Romero

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.147

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      The X-linked neonatal form of myotubular myopathy is the most severe form of centronuclear myopathy. The disease is caused by mutations in the MTM1 gene encoding myotubularin. The severe neonatal form is characterised by hypotonia, muscle weakness, hypotrophy and respiratory failure requiring assisted ventilation immediately after birth. In this study, we perform a re-evaluation of morphological changes in skeletal muscle biopsies. We demonstrated that there are not a period free of morphological abnormalities in human skeletal muscle as observed in myotubularin-deficient mouse models. In addition, this study demonstrated some features of delayed maturation of the muscle fibres without any increase in the number of satellite cells, associated with a marked disorganisation of the muscle T-tubules and cytoskeletal network in the skeletal muscle fibres.

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      Comparison between brain CT and MRI for voxel-based morphometry of Alzheimer's disease (pages 487–493)

      Etsuko Imabayashi, Hiroshi Matsuda, Takeshi Tabira, Kunimasa Arima, Nobuo Araki, Kenji Ishii, Fumio Yamashita, Takeshi Iwatsubo and Japanese Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.146

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      Gray and white matter were successfully segmented and extracted from computed tomography (CT) images. Parahippocampal atrophy in Alzheimer's disease were detected with voxel-based morphometry (VBM).

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