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Brain and Behavior

Cover image for Vol. 3 Issue 5

September 2013

Volume 3, Issue 5

Pages i–ii, 495–601

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Issue Information (pages i–ii)

      Version of Record online: 12 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.178

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The role of rs2237781 within GRM8 in eating behavior (pages 495–502)

      Marie-Therese Gast, Anke Tönjes, Maria Keller, Annette Horstmann, Nanette Steinle, Markus Scholz, Ines Müller, Arno Villringer, Michael Stumvoll, Peter Kovacs and Yvonne Böttcher

      Version of Record online: 23 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.151

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      The glutamate receptor, metabotropic 8 gene (GRM8) encodes a G-protein-coupled glutamate receptor and has been associated with smoking behavior and liability to alcoholism implying a role in addiction vulnerability. Our data suggest that rs2237781 within GRM8 may influence human eating behavior factors.

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      Differential roles of astrocyte and microglia in supporting oligodendrocyte development and myelination in vitro (pages 503–514)

      Yi Pang, Lir-Wan Fan, Lu-Tai Tien, XueMei Dai, Baoying Zheng, Zhengwei Cai, Rick C. S. Lin and Abhay Bhatt

      Version of Record online: 9 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.152

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      The current study examined the effects of microglia and astrocyte-conditioned medium on oligodendrocyte (OL) developmental phenotypes including cell survival, proliferation, differentiation and myelination in vitro. Our data reveal that although both astrocytes- and microglia-conditioned medium (ACDM and MCDM) protect OL progenitor cells (OPCs) against growth factor withdrawal-induced acute cell death, they differentially affect OL proliferation, differentiation, long-term survival, and myelination. The differential effects of astrocytes and microglia on OL development is highlighted by distinct patterns of cytokine in the conditioned medium, as well as intracellular signaling pathways activated in OLs upon exposure to the conditioned medium.

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      Quantification of subcortical gray-matter vascularization using 7 Tesla time-of-flight angiography (pages 515–518)

      Mathias Laurig, Xinyang Liu, Michael Wyss, Anton Gietl, Lena Jellestad, Roger M. Nitsch, Klaas Prüssmann, Christoph Hock and Paul G. Unschuld

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.154

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      In this study we quantified individual aging-related decrease of subcortical gray-matter vascularization and demonstrated most pronounced changes for brain regions in the Thalamus and Pallidum. Using three-dimensional (3D) time-of-flight (TOF) angiography at high field strength of 7 Tesla (7T), high spatial resolution could be realized, allowing to take into account potential regional small vessel pathology.

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      Posterior insular cortex – a site of vestibular–somatosensory interaction? (pages 519–524)

      Bernhard Baier, Peter zu Eulenburg, Christoph Best, Christian Geber, Wibke Müller-Forell, Frank Birklein and Marianne Dieterich

      Version of Record online: 23 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.155

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      In previous imaging studies the insular cortex (IC) has been identified as an essential part of the processing of a wide spectrum of perception and sensorimotor integration. We explored signs of a vestibular tone imbalance such as the deviation of the subjective visual vertical (SVV), and we performed comprehensive sensory profiling. We applied voxel-lesion behavior mapping analysis in 20 patients with acute unilateral cortical damage. We conclude that the IC is a primary sensory brain region merging the different sensations.

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      Cross-linguistic influence of first language writing systems on brain responses to second language word reading in late bilinguals (pages 525–531)

      Satoru Yokoyama, Jungho Kim, Shinya Uchida, Tadao Miyamoto, Kei Yoshimoto and Ryuta Kawashima

      Version of Record online: 30 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.153

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      In this study, we investigated whether there exists a cross-linguistic influence of first language (L1) orthography on second language (L2) word reading. Our results suggest that when orthography cross-linguistically differs between L1 and L2, learners use cortical networks associated with the processing of both L1 and L2 to process L2.

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      Anxiety type modulates immediate versus delayed engagement of attention-related brain regions (pages 532–551)

      Jeffrey M. Spielberg, Angeline A. De Leon, Keith Bredemeier, Wendy Heller, Anna S. Engels, Stacie L. Warren, Laura D. Crocker, Bradley P. Sutton and Gregory A. Miller

      Version of Record online: 1 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.157

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      Inconsistent habituation of the fear response may be due differential attentional engagement with negatively valenced stimuli as a function of anxiety type. The present study tested and supported this hypothesis by examining patterns of neural habituation associated with anxious arousal, characterized by panic symptoms and immediate engagement with negatively valenced stimuli, versus anxious apprehension, characterized by engagement in worry to distract from negatively valenced stimuli. Results further elucidate mechanisms involved in attention to negatively valenced stimuli and indicate that anxiety is a heterogeneous construct with regard to attention to such stimuli.

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      High-throughput cognitive assessment using examining cognitive control in a family cohort (pages 552–561)

      Fred W. Sabb, Gerhard Hellemann, Deanna Lau, Jessica R. Vanderlan, Heather J. Cohen, Robert M. Bilder and James T. McCracken

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.158

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      Understanding the relationship between brain and complex latent behavioral constructs like cognitive control will require an inordinate amount of data. Here we report Web-community prevalence of (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder) ADHD-related symptoms in adolescents, demonstrate familial correlations in cognitive control measures, and use construct validation techniques to validate our high-throughput Web-based assessment approach.

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      Selenoprotein W expression and regulation in mouse brain and neurons (pages 562–574)

      Arjun V. Raman, Matthew W. Pitts, Ali Seyedali, Ann C. Hashimoto, Frederick P. Bellinger and Marla J. Berry

      Version of Record online: 1 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.159

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      In this report we assess the expression of Selenoprotein W (Sepw1) in the brains of mice and in cultured neurons, showing expression in neuronal processes and synapses. We also demonstrate association of Sepw1 mRNA with the mRNA-binding protein, Staufen-2, suggesting a potential role for Staufen-2 in regulation of Sepw1 expression.

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      Distinction between hand dominance and hand preference in primates: a behavioral investigation of manual dexterity in nonhuman primates (macaques) and human subjects (pages 575–595)

      Pauline Chatagny, Simon Badoud, Mélanie Kaeser, Anne-Dominique Gindrat, Julie Savidan, Michela Fregosi, Véronique Moret, Christine Roulin, Eric Schmidlin and Eric M. Rouiller

      Version of Record online: 1 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.160

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      The aim of the present study was to confront hand preference (hand chosen in priority to perform a manual dexterity task) and hand dominance (hand with best motor performance) in eight macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and in twenty human subjects (10 left and 10 right handers). Macaca fascicularis do not exhibit a clear hand preference, neither at population level, nor at individual level. For human subjects, hand preference mostly followed the self-assessment of lateralization given by the subjects and the questionnaire. The present study argues for dissociating hand preference and hand dominance, especially in macaque monkeys.

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      Fear of heights and mild visual height intolerance independent of alcohol consumption (pages 596–601)

      Doreen Huppert, Eva Grill, Hans-Peter Kapfhammer and Thomas Brandt

      Version of Record online: 22 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.162

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      Visual height intolerance occurs when a visual stimulus causes apprehension of losing balance and falling from some height. It affects one third of the population and has a broad spectrum of symptoms, ranging from minor distress to fear of heights. Our study does not provide evidence that visual height intolerance – contrary to various specific phobias – is significantly associated with individual alcohol consumption patterns.