Neural bases of gaze and emotion processing in children with autism spectrum disorders
Article first published online: 8 JUN 2011
©2011 The Authors. Brain and Behavior published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.
Brain and Behavior
Volume 1, Issue 1, pages 1–11, September 2011
How to Cite
Davies, M. S., Dapretto, M., Sigman, M., Sepeta, L. and Bookheimer, S. Y. (2011), Neural bases of gaze and emotion processing in children with autism spectrum disorders. Brain and Behavior, 1: 1–11. doi: 10.1002/brb3.6
- Issue published online: 29 SEP 2011
- Article first published online: 8 JUN 2011
- Received: 13 April 2011; Revised: 15 April 2011; Accepted: 20 April 2011.
- facial expression;
- functional magnetic resonance imaging;
- developmental neuroimaging
Abnormal eye contact is a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), though little is understood of the neural bases of gaze processing in ASD. Competing hypotheses suggest that individuals with ASD avoid eye contact due to the anxiety-provoking nature of direct eye gaze or that eye-gaze cues hold less interest or significance to children with ASD. The current study examined the effects of gaze direction on neural processing of emotional faces in typically developing (TD) children and those with ASD. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 16 high-functioning children and adolescents with ASD and 16 TD controls viewed a series of faces depicting emotional expressions with either direct or averted gaze. Children in both groups showed significant activity in visual-processing regions for both direct and averted gaze trials. However, there was a significant group by gaze interaction such that only TD children showed reliably greater activity in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex for direct versus averted gaze. The ASD group showed no difference between direct and averted gaze in response to faces conveying negative emotions. These results highlight the key role of eye gaze in signaling communicative intent and suggest altered processing of the emotional significance of direct gaze in children with ASD.