This study was supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH R01 NS048281) to J. P. S.
The effects of linguistic relationships among paired associates on verbal self-generation and recognition memory
Article first published online: 4 OCT 2012
© 2012 The Authors. Brain and Behavior published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Brain and Behavior
Volume 2, Issue 6, pages 789–795, November 2012
How to Cite
Brain and Behavior 2012; 2(6): 789–795
- Issue published online: 9 NOV 2012
- Article first published online: 4 OCT 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 5 SEP 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 18 JUL 2012
- Manuscript Received: 12 APR 2012
- National Institutes of Health. Grant Number: R01 NS048281
- recognition memory;
- word associations;
- word pairs
Previous studies have shown that self-generated information is better remembered than information that has been read passively. To further examine this subsequent memory effect, we investigated the effect of five different linguistic relationships on memory encoding. Ninety subjects were administered 60 paired associates during an encoding condition: 30 of the second words from each pair were to be read aloud and 30 were to be self-generated from clues as to the correct word. Word pairs were composed of five linguistic relationships: category, rhyme, opposite, synonym, and association. Subsequently, subjects were presented with the words that were read or generated in a forced recognition memory task. Overall, reading accuracy was higher than generation accuracy during the encoding phase (all P < 0.001). During the recognition phase, subjects' performance was better on the generate than on the read conditions for opposite, synonym, category, and association relationships (all P < 0.05), with no difference in the rhyme relationship. These results confirm previous findings that self-generated information is better remembered than read information and suggest that this advantage may be mediated by using opposite, synonym, category, and association relationships, while rhyme relationship may not extend such an advantage. These findings may have implications for future studies of memory interventions in healthy controls and subjects with cognitive impairments.