Living systems: Structure and process



An article in the previous issue of this journal outlined the basic principles of the author's general systems behavior theory as it will be set forth in his Living Systems, to be published in a few months. This article and the following one continue the exposition of this viewpoint. Salient characteristics of the subsystem and system-wide structures and processes which generally occur at all levels of living systems are considered here. The scientific literature of the mathematical, biological, and social behavioral sciences that investigate each of these levels can be integrated and interpreted in terms of these concepts. The empirical findings of that literature will be submitted to detailed analysis in the forthcoming book in terms of the schema outlined here. The approach used is designed to emphasize the unity of the phenomena of life, from cells to supranational systems.