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Keywords:

  • organism;
  • group;
  • society;
  • organization;
  • space stations and settlements;
  • space habitation;
  • behavioral and biological sciences

Abstract

In anticipation of longer missions on the space stations, Mir and Freedom, as well as a potential return to the Moon and the exploration of Mars, human survival and the quality of life aloft will be increasingly dependent upon research in the behavioral and biological sciences. This article reviews the possible contributions to space habitation of the behavioral sciences—especially anthropology, psychology, and sociology. Before space settlements become a reality, the author makes a case for the broadening of the engineering approach to human factor studies, and consideration of the integrative living systems theory in space planning and management.