The authors wish to thank Mr Vijay Bhardwaj of the EC Environment Directorate for his introduction of this article's key concept to the lead author in 1992.
Strategic inter-organizational environmentalism in the US: A multi-sectoral perspective of alternating eco-policy roles†
Article first published online: 2 JUL 2002
Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. and ERP Environment
Business Strategy and the Environment
Volume 11, Issue 4, pages 221–235, July/August 2002
How to Cite
Starik, M. and Heuer, M. (2002), Strategic inter-organizational environmentalism in the US: A multi-sectoral perspective of alternating eco-policy roles. Bus. Strat. Env., 11: 221–235. doi: 10.1002/bse.334
- Issue published online: 2 JUL 2002
- Article first published online: 2 JUL 2002
- Manuscript Accepted: 17 JAN 2002
- Manuscript Revised: 28 NOV 2001
- Manuscript Received: 25 OCT 1998
During the last several decades, numerous policies and programs intended to advance environmental goals have been formulated in the US by governmental bodies and implemented by businesses and nongovernmental organizations. This article forwards a multi-sectoral perspective that business and nonprofit organizations have also been significantly involved in environmental policy and program formulation, as well as implementation, and that governments have also fulfilled the latter strategic role in US environmental policy. In this article, nine US environmental initiatives are described and categorized according to which of the three sectors' organizations were significant formulators of the programs and which were significant implementors. Implications for future research include investigation of other environmental dyadic program combinations in addition to those presented, extension of the present analysis beyond dyads into environmental policy networks, inclusion of the strategic environmental program evaluation stage to complement formulation and implementation and exploration of effectiveness variables in cross-sectoral, inter-organizational collaborations. Implications for educators and practitioners are also presented. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. and ERP Environment.