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Creating Value with Wastes: A Model and Typology of Sustainability Within Firms


Jean Kabongo, College of Business, University of South Florida, Sarasota-Manatee, FL, USA. E-mail:


The objective of this paper is to construct a model and propose a typology of residual material reclamation practices in manufacturing facilities. The qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with 60 managers demonstrated that residual material reclamation can be characterized by six key dimensions associated with the recovery and transformation of residuals: reclaiming goals, reclaiming scope, awareness of activities, manufacturing processes, environmental management and variety of materials used. The analysis of each dimension from a managerial point of view suggests five types of residual material reclamation: craft, broad consolidated, narrow consolidated, broad leverage and narrow leverage. The model and typology expand our understanding of residual material reclamation activities within organizations actively involved in sustainable initiatives. This study contributes to proposing an analytical framework aimed at understanding how practices concerning residual material reclamation are managed. Implications for organizational research and management are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.