Traumatic Brain Injury: Guidance in a Forensic Context from Outcome, Dose–Response, and Response Bias Research



Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs at a high incidence, involving millions of individuals in the U.S. alone. Related to this, there are large numbers of litigants and claimants who are referred annually for forensic evaluation. In formulating opinions regarding claimed injuries, the present review advises experts to rely on two sets of information: TBI outcome and neuropsychological dose–response studies of non-litigants and non-claimants, and response bias literature that has demonstrated the relatively high risk of invalid responding among examinees referred within a secondary gain context, which in turn has resulted in the development of specific assessment methods. Regarding prospective methods for detecting possible response bias, both symptom validity tests, for measuring over-reporting of symptoms on inventories and questionnaires, and performance validity tests, for measuring insufficient effort on ability tests, are considered essential. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.