• Photorhabdus temperata strain K122;
  • bioinsecticide;
  • oxidative stress;
  • dissolved oxygen concentration;
  • two-stage oxygen supply strategy


To develop a cost effective process for bioinsecticides production by Photorhabdus temperata, dissolved oxygen (DO) requirements were investigated in both the complex and the optimized media using diluted seawater as a source of micronutrients. By varying DO concentrations, tolerance to hydrogen peroxide was shown to be medium dependant. Indeed, P. temperata cells grown in the complex medium, exhibited higher tolerance than cells grown in the optimized medium (OM). Tolerance to H2O2 was shown to be related to intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation during soya bean meal or glucose assimilation, as shown by flow cytometry analysis. To avoid oxidative stress damages in P. temperata cells cultured in the OM, DO concentration should be constant 50% saturation throughout the fermentation. However, a DO-shift control strategy was demonstrated to be beneficial for P. temperata bioinsecticide production in the complex medium. By using such a strategy biomass, culturability, and oral toxicity reached 16.5 × 108, 1.15 × 108 cells/mL and 64.2%, respectively, thus was 16.19, 26.37, and 12.2% more than in the cultures carried out at a constant 50% saturation. © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2012