Carbon nanotubes, graphene and fullerenes are actual nanomaterials with many applications in different industrial areas, with increasing potentialities in the field of nanomedicine. Recently, different proactive approaches on toxicology and safety management have become the focus of intense interest once the industrial production of these materials had a significant growth in the last years, even though their short- and long-term behaviors are not yet fully understood. The most important concerns involving these carbon-based nanomaterials are their stability and potential effects of their life cycles on animals, humans, and environment. In this context, this mini review discuss the biodegradability of these materials, particularly through redox-enzymes, micro-organisms and cells, to contribute toward the design of biocompatible and biodegradable functionalized carbon nanostructures, in order to use these materials safely and with minimum impact on the environment. © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2013
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