• hybrid modeling;
  • process analytical technology (PAT);
  • near infrared;
  • partial least square;
  • Bordetella pertussis


In the process analytical technology (PAT) initiative, the application of sensors technology and modeling methods is promoted. The emphasis is on Quality by Design, online monitoring, and closed-loop control with the general aim of building in product quality into manufacturing operations. As a result, online high-throughput process analyzers find increasing application and therewith high amounts of highly correlated data become available online. In this study, an hybrid chemometric/mathematical modeling method is adopted for data analysis, which is shown to be advantageous over the commonly used chemometric techniques in PAT applications. This methodology was applied to the analysis of process data of Bordetella pertussis cultivations, namely online data of near-infrared, (NIR), pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen, and off-line data of biomass, glutamate, and lactate concentrations. The hybrid model structure consisted of macroscopic material balance equations in which the specific reactions rates are modeled by nonlinear partial least square (PLS). This methodology revealed a significant higher statistical confidence in comparison to PLSs, translated in a reduction of mean squared prediction errors (e.g., individual root mean squared prediction errors calibration/validation obtained through the hybrid model for the concentrations of lactate: 0.8699/0.7190 mmol/L; glutamate: 0.6057/0.2917 mmol/L; and biomass: 0.0520/0.0283 OD; and obtained through the PLS model for the concentrations of lactate: 1.3549/1.0087 mmol/L; glutamate: 0.7628/0.3504 mmol/L; and biomass: 0.0949/0.0412 OD). Moreover, the analysis of loadings and scores in the hybrid approach revealed that process features can, as for PLS, be extracted by the hybrid method. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2012