Wilhelm Waldeyer was anatomist, physiologist, and pathologist during the German Empire (the so-called Second Reich). His scientific career left many traces still noticeable today. Not only is he commemorated in “his” pharyngeal lymphoid ring and other eponyms, but he also coined an impressive range of successful medical terms, including “chromosome” and “neuron.” Moreover, Waldeyer left truly physical traces by donating parts of his body to his own Institute of Anatomy in Berlin. His scientific production does, however, also include “pseudoscientific” works, notably his questionable research on African brains. Clin. Anat. 20:231–234, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.