Robotic thyroid surgery is a relatively new technique that provides the patient with the aesthetic advantage of a surgery without a scar in the anterior cervical region. The use of this technique, however, forces the surgeon to view the anatomy from a different vantage point, concomitantly providing the surgeon with a challenge with respect to dissection and sound oncologic ablation. It is important to note that robotic surgery used in this fashion is not limited access but rather requires a greater surface area of dissection to reach the surgical target. This article will discuss the relevant anatomy, operative goals, robotic technique, and clinical considerations of robotic thyroid surgery. Clin. Anat. 25:40–53, 2012. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.