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The monro bell controversy


  • For an overview of Leonardo's studies of brain anatomy, see Pevsner ([12]).

Correspondence to: J.M.S. Pearce, 304 Beverley Road Anlaby, East Yorks HU10 7BG, UK. E-mail:


Amongst the contributions in anatomy and surgery of the celebrated Monros was the contentious “discovery” by Monro Secundus of the interventricular foramen. Monro's account (1783) was vehemently criticized in London, especially by Charles Bell for presuming to describe something which was already well known and for inaccuracies. Monro with some justification in 1797 disputed this attack, although his anatomical description was shown by later anatomists to be mistaken. Clin. Anat. 26:793–799, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.