Vulvar pain syndrome or vulvodynia is a common multifactorial, heterogeneous, and chronic gynecological disorder with an estimated prevalence of up to 16%. This disorder seriously impacts the quality of life of women in several ways. The etiology of this condition is complex and remains elusive and requires an extensive differential diagnosis. A standard therapeutic approach for the management of vulvar pain is still under investigation and must be multidisciplinary. This review outlines the anatomic and pathophysiologic aspects of vulvar pain. Clin. Anat. 26:130–133, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.