In the last few decades, in sexology and in sexual medicine (Goldstein,2000; Goldstein et al.,2006; Komisaruk et al.,2006; San Diego Sexual Medicine,2012), the lack of concrete knowledge about the female erectile organs (triggers of orgasm) has led to the development of many concepts about female sexuality, such as: the clitoral system, “the vagina is a singularly female possession … hence the main body of the vagina would not have a vestigial counterpart in the male” (Sherfey,1973), the clitoral (i.e., clitoris-urethra-distal vagina) complex, the clitoral bulbs, the internal clitoris, the clitoris composed of two arcs, the clitoris root made of two clitoral bodies and two clitoral bulbs, vaginal penetration causes close contact between the inner clitoris and the distal anterior vaginal wall, the Grafenberg spot (i.e. G-spot), the G-spot represents that part of the urethra that contains the periglandular or paraurethral tissue, the genitosensory component of the vagus nerve, Halban's fascia erogenous zone, the periurethral glans, the vaginal anterior fornix erogenous zone, female ejaculation, the anterior vaginal wall as an organ for the transmission of active forces to the urethra and the clitoris (Addiego et al.,1981; Perry and Whipple,1981; Hoang et al.,1991; Levin,1991, 2002, 2011; Ingelman-Sundberg,1997; O'Connell et al.,1998, 2004, 2005,2008; Chalker,2000; Goldstein,2000; Komisaruk et al.,2004, 2006; Meston et al.,2004; O'Connell and DeLancey,2005; Goldstein et al.,2006; Yang et al.,2006; Levin and Riley,2007; Buisson et al.,2008, 2010; Thabet,2009; Foldes and Buisson,2009; Buisson,2010; Jannini et al.,2010, 2012; Salonia et al.,2010; Dwyer,2012;Ostrzenski,2012; San Diego Sexual Medicine,2012), the clitoris formed by crown-corpus-crura and the woman's glans surrounding the urethral opening (Sevely,1987, 1988; Levin,1991), the complete clitoris consists of 18 parts (Chalker,2000), the urethrovaginal space, the presence of pseudocavernous tissue (clitoral bulb) in the anterior vaginal mucosa, the vaginal orgasm, the woman's history of vaginal orgasm is discernible from her walk, the vaginal orgasm is more prevalent among women with a prominent tubercle of the upper lip (Goldstein et al.,2006; Gravina et al.,2008; Nicholas et al.,2008; Brody and Costa,2011; Jannini et al.,2012), the variation in the distance between a woman's glans clitoris and her urethra predicts the likelihood that she will experience orgasm in intercourse (Wallen and Lloyd,2011), the premature female orgasm (Carvalho et al.,2011), persistent genital arousal disorder (Korda et al.,2009; Rosenbaum,2010), orgasm and resolution are not essential in Basson's model of the sexual response cycle (Basson et al.,2005; Rosen and Barsky,2006), which are without scientific (i.e., embryological, anatomical and physiological) basis (Dickinson,1949; Grafenberg,1950; Masters and Johnson,1966; Hite,1981; Masters et al.,1988; Laqueur,1992; Hines,2001; Puppo,2006a, 2006b, 2011a, 2011b, 2011c, 2012b; Vicentini,2008; Puppo et al.,2008a; Shafik et al.,2009; Youtube/newsexology,2009, 2010; Magnin,2010; Kilchevsky et al.,2012; Puppo and Gruenwald, in press) and they are not accepted or shared by anatomists (Testut and Latarjet,1972; Chiarugi and Bucciante,1975; Standring,2008; Netter,2010).
The anatomy of the female erectile organs is described in human anatomy textbooks (Testut and Latarjet,1972; Chiarugi and Bucciante,1975; Standring,2008; Netter,2010; Puppo,2011a), but in sexology textbooks (Komisaruk et al.,2006), the anatomy and physiology of the clitoris, other female erectile organs, and of the female orgasm are often neglected (Puppo,2011c). “In anatomy textbooks there is a separation between the embryological development of the internal and external genital organs in males and females. It is important to know this because it is related to the function of these organs, that is, the internal genitals have a reproductive function while the external ones have the function of giving pleasure” (Puppo,2011a).
The vulva (i.e., female external genitalia) is formed by the labia majora and vestibule, with its erectile apparatus: clitoris (glans; body; crura or roots), vestibular bulbs with the pars intermedia (i.e., female corpus spongiosum), and labia minora. These structures are external to the perineal membrane (i.e., urogenital diaphragm), in front of the pubic symphysis and in the anterior perineal region (Figs. 1 and 2) (Testut and Latarjet,1972; Chiarugi and Bucciante,1975; Standring,2008; Stein and DeLancey,2008; Netter,2010; Puppo,2011a, 2011d).
The labia majora are two prominent cutaneous folds and from the mons pubis, reach up to the perineum, and correspond to the male scrotum; normally they are in contact and separated only by the vulvar cleft (rima pudendi). When the labia majora are separated, two smaller folds are seen, the labia minora, which anteriorly embrace the clitoris, and in the space between them (i.e., vaginal vestibule) is found the vaginal orifice containing the hymen or its remains and the urethral orifice (Hartmann,1913; Testut and Latarjet,1972; Chiarugi and Bucciante,1975; Friedman et al., 2004; Standring,2008). The mucosa of the vaginal vestibule, which originates from the embryonic endoderm, is nonkeratinized (Farage and Maibach,2006). The term “periurethral glans” (Levin,1991, 2002) for this area (i.e., vaginal vestibule) is an incorrect anatomical term (Puppo et al.,2008a; Puppo,2011a, 2011c).