Very little is known about outcomes of sexual behavior for sexual minority youth. In this chapter, I review relevant literature and draw on findings from my own research to initiate an inquiry into this important topic. I begin with a brief overview of the range of sexual behaviors of sexual minority adolescents and young adults. Next, I describe what we know about positive and negative outcomes of sexual behavior among sexual minority youth. This discussion takes into account physical outcomes, psychological and emotional outcomes, and outcomes related to identity development. Lastly, I discuss the limitations of prior research and propose several goals for future research to expand our understanding of this topic. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.