• cooperative learning;
  • complementation of knowledge;
  • learner motivation;
  • online performance;
  • learning portfolios


One of the major goals of learning is to obtain knowledge and skills. It is therefore of importance to study the following issues: how the online performances of learners may be extracted from their learning portfolios, how their learning motivations can be improved, and whether their learning achievements can be improved as a result. This study extracts online performances from portfolios and shows that there is a positive correlation between online performance and learning achievement. Subjects of the experimental group were teamed by complementation of knowledge, whereas subjects of the control group were teamed by random. Final ANOVA tests showed that there was a significant difference in both online performances and learning achievements. Subjects of the experimental group were better motivated due to complementation of knowledge; this in turn resulted in better online performances and learning achievements for these subjects.Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 22:541–550, 2014; View this article online at; DOI 10.1002/cae.10.1002/cae.20579