• 1
    Regional Health Observatory. Regional mortality information system. 2011. Available at (accessed 18 February 2013).
  • 2
    Hall, G., and H. A. Patrinos. 2006. Pp. 221240 in Indigenous people, poverty, and human development in Latin America: 1994–2004. Vol. 8. The World Bank, New York.
  • 3
    PAHO, and WHO. 2008. Human rights and health: indigenous peoples. PAHO & WHO, Washington, DC.
  • 4
    Yashar, D. J. 2005. P. 115 in Contesting citizenship in Latin America: the rise of indigenous movements and the post-liberal challenge. Cambridge University Press, New York.
  • 5
    Montenegro, R. A., and C. Stephens. 2006. Indigenous health in Latin America and the Caribbean. Lancet 367:18591869.
  • 6
    AIHW, and ABS. 2008. The health and welfare of Australia's aboriginal and Torres Strait islander peoples. Report No.: ABS No. 4704.0 AIHW No. IHW 21. AIHW & ABS, Canberra, Australia.
  • 7
    NZ Ministry of Health. 2012. Cancer patient survival change over time. Update covering the period 1994–2009. Ministry of Health, Wellington, New Zealand.
  • 8
    Cramb, S. M., G. Garvey, P. C. Valery, J. D. Williamson, and P. D. Baade. 2012. The first year counts: cancer survival among indigenous and non-indigenous Queenslanders, 1997–2006. Med. J. Aust. 196:270274.
  • 9
    Chong, A., and D. Roder. 2010. Exploring differences in survival from cancer among indigenous and non-indigenous Australians: implications for health service delivery and research. Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 11:953961.
  • 10
    Woods, L. M., B. Rachet, and M. P. Coleman. 2006. Origins of socio-economic inequalities in cancer survival: a review. Ann. Oncol. 17:519.
  • 11
    Pozo, W. J., F. L. Casazola, and E. Y. Aguilar. 2006. Bolivia. P. 40 in G. Hall and H. A. Patrinos, eds. Indigenous peoples, poverty and human development in Latin America. The World Bank, New York.
  • 12
    Goss, P. E., B. L. Lee, T. Badovinac-Crnjevic, K. Strasser-Weippl, Y. Chavarri-Guerra, J. S. Louis, et al. 2013. Planning cancer control in Latin America and the Caribbean. Lancet Oncol. 14:391436.
  • 13
    United Nations Development Group. 2008. Guidelines on indigenous peoples' issues. Secretariat of the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, New York.
  • 14
    United Nations. 2010. The state of the World's indigenous peoples. Report No.: ST/ESA/328. United Nations, New York.
  • 15
    Instituto Brasileiro de Geografi a e Estatística – IBGE. 2011. Indicadores Sociais Municipais: Uma análise dos resultados do universo do Censo Demográfi co 2010. Ministério do Planejamento, Orçamento e Gestão, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
  • 16
    Barreto, S. M., J. J. Miranda, J. P. Figueroa, M. I. Schmidt, S. Munoz, P. P. Kuri-Morales, et al. 2012. Epidemiology in Latin America and the Caribbean: current situation and challenges. Int. J. Epidemiol. 41:557571.
  • 17
    International Working Group for Indigenous Affairs. 2011. The indigenous World 2011. IWGIA, Denmark.
  • 18
    Central Intelligency Agency. 2011. The World factbook. Available at (accessed 3 January 2012).
  • 19
    Schkolink, S., and F. del Popol. 2005. Pueblos indígenas y afrodescendientes de America Latina y el Caribe: relevancia y pertinencia de la information sociodemographica para politicas y programasLos censos y los pueblos indígenas en América Latina: Una metodología Regional. CEPAL, Santiago de Chile.
  • 20
    Barton, M. B., M. Frommer, and J. Shafiq. 2006. Role of radiotherapy in cancer control in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet Oncol. 7:584595.
  • 21
    Larrea, C., and F. M. Torres. 2006. Ecuador. Pp. 76105 in G. Hall, and H. A. Patrinos, eds. Indigenous peoples, poverty and human development in Latin America: 1994–2004. The World Bank, New York.
  • 22
    Curado, M. P., T. Pontes, M. E. Guerra-Yi, and M. C. de Camargo. 2011. Leukemia mortality trends among children, adolescents, and young adults in Latin America. Rev. Panam. Salud Publica 29:96102.
  • 23
    Curado, M. P., L. Voti, and A. M. Sortino-Rachou. 2009. Cancer registration data and quality indicators in low and middle income countries: their interpretation and potential use for the improvement of cancer care. Cancer Causes Control 20:751756.
  • 24
    Luciani, S., and J. K. Andrus. 2008. A PAHO strategy for cervical cancer prevention and control in Latin America and the Caribbean. Reprod. Health Matters 16:5966.
  • 25
    WHO/ICO Information Centre on HPV and Cervical Cancer (HPV Information Centre). 2010. Human Papillomavirus and Related Cancers in Bolivia. Summary Report 2010. WHO/ICO Information Centre on HPV and Cervical Cancer, Bolivia.
  • 26
    Ferlay, J., H. R. Shin, F. Bray, D. Forman, C. Mathers, and D. M. Parkin. 2010. GLOBOCAN 2008 v1.2, cancer incidence and mortality worldwide. Report No.: IARC CancerBase No. 10. IARC, Lyon, France.
  • 27
    Rios-Dalenz, J., A. Takabayashi, D. E. Henson, B. L. Strom, and R. D. Soloway. 1983. The epidemiology of cancer of the extra-hepatic biliary tract in Bolivia. Int. J. Epidemiol. 12:156160.
  • 28
    Rio Grande do Sul Sectretaria da Saude. 2010. Estatisticas de Saude: Mortalide 2009. CDU 312.26(816.5):614.4. Porto Alegre.
  • 29
    Pagliaro, H., N. S. Carvalho, D. Rodrigues, and R. G. Baruzzi. 2007. Demographic dynamics of the Suya, a Je people of the Xingu Indigenous Park, central Brazil, 1970–2004. Cad. Saude Publica 23:10711081.
  • 30
    Taborda, W. C., S. C. Ferreira, D. Rodrigues, J. N. Stavale, and R. G. Baruzzi. 2000. Cervical cancer screening among indigenous women in the Xingu Indian reservation, central Brazil. Rev. Panam. Salud Publica 7:9296.
  • 31
    Geimba de Lima, M., S. Koifman, I. L. Scapulatempo, M. Peixoto, S. Naomi, and M. Curado do Amaral. 2001. Risk factors for breast cancer among rural Terena Indian women in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Cad. Saude Publica 17:15371544.
  • 32
    Bakos, L., N. C. Masiero, R. M. Bakos, R. M. Burttet, M. B. Wagner, and D. Benzano. 2009. European ancestry and cutaneous melanoma in southern Brazil. J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 23:304307.
  • 33
    Brazilian Population-Based Cancer Registries. 2013. Cancer incidence by ethnicity: Brasília, Curitiba, Manaus, Recife, Salvador and Roraima. Brazilian National Cancer Institute José Alencar Gomes da Silva (INCA), Rio de Janeiro.
  • 34
    Guzmín, G., H. Villaseca, P. Antonio, O. Araya, M. Aravena, P. Cravero, et al. 2011. Carcinoma epidermoide oral y orofaringeo: Estudio clinico-patoligico. Rev. Chil. Cir. 63:250256.
  • 35
    Heise, K., E. Bertran, M. E. Andia, and C. Ferreccio. 2009. Incidence and survival of stomach cancer in a high-risk population of Chile. World J. Gastroenterol. 15:18541862.
  • 36
    Bertran, E., K. Heise, M. E. Andia, and C. Ferreccio. 2010. Gallbladder cancer: incidence and survival in a high-risk area of Chile. Int. J. Cancer 127:24462454.
  • 37
    Lemrow, S. M., D. G. Perdue, S. L. Stewart, L. C. Richardson, M. A. Jim, H. T. French, et al. 2008. Gallbladder cancer incidence among American Indians and Alaska Natives, US, 1999 to 2004. Cancer 113:12661273.
  • 38
    Andia, M. E., A. W. Hsing, G. Andreotti, and C. Ferreccio. 2008. Geographic variation of gallbladder cancer mortality and risk factors in Chile: a population-based ecologic study. Int. J. Cancer 123:14111416.
  • 39
    Andia, M. K., A. Gederlini, and C. R. Ferreccio. 2006. Cíncer de ves¡cula biliar: Tendencia y distribucin del riesgo en Chile [Gallbladder cancer: trends and risk distribution in Chile]. Rev. Med. Chil. 134:565574.
  • 40
    Calaf, G. M., F. Caba, J. Farias, and F. Rothhammer. 2010. Factors that influence the incidence of breast cancer in Arica, Chile (Review). Oncol. Lett. 1:583588.
  • 41
    Pardo, R. C., and D. R. Cendales. 2010. Incidencia estimada y mortalidad por cancer en Colombia 2002–2006. Instituto Nacional De Cancerologia, ESE, Bogota.
  • 42
    Piñeros, M., G. Hernández, C. Pardo, and O. Gamboa. 2010. Atlas de Mortalidad por cáncer en Colombia. Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Bogotá.
  • 43
    Pineros, M., J. Ferlay, and R. Murill. 2006. Cancer incidence estimates at the national and district levels in Colombia. Salud Publica Mex. 48:455465.
  • 44
    Hurtig, A. K., and M. San Sebastián. 2002. Gynecologic and breast malignancies in the Amazon basin of Ecuador, 1985 to 1998. Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstet. 76:199201.
  • 45
    Hurtig, A. K., and M. San Sebastián. 2002. Geographical differences in cancer incidence in the Amazon basin of Ecuador in relation to residence near oil fields. Int. J. Epidemiol. 31:10211027.
  • 46
    Plummer, W. S. B., P. Persaud, and P. J. Layne. 2009. Ethnicity and cancer in Guyana, South America. Infect. Agent. Cancer 4(Suppl 1):S7.
  • 47
    Kightlinger, R. S., W. P. Irvin, K. J. Archer, N. W. Huang, R. A. Wilson, J. R. Doran, et al. 2010. Cervical cancer and human papillomavirus in indigenous Guyanese women. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 202:626627.
  • 48
    Mohanna, S., V. Maco, A. Gown, D. Morales, F. Bravo, and E. Gotuzzo. 2006. Is classic Kaposi's sarcoma endemic in Peru? Report of a case in an indigenous patient. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 75:324326.
  • 49
    Mohanna, S., F. Bravo, J. C. Ferrufino, J. Sanchez, and E. Gotuzzo. 2007. Classic Kaposi's sarcoma presenting in the oral cavity of two HIV-negative Quechua patients. Med. Oral Patol. Oral Cir. Bucal 12:E365E368.
  • 50
    Ferlay, J., H. R. Shin, , F. Bray, D. Forman, C. Mathers, D. M. Parkin. 2010. Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int. J. Cancer 127:28932917.
  • 51
    Alderete, E., P. I. Erickson, C. P. Kaplan, and E. J. Perez-Stable. 2010. Ceremonial tobacco use in the Andes: implications for smoking prevention among indigenous youth. Anthropol. Med. 17:2739.
  • 52
    Seale, J. P., S. Shellenberger, C. Rodriguez, J. D. Seale, and M. Alvarado. 2002. Alcohol use and cultural change in an indigenous population: a case study from Venezuela. Alcohol Alcohol. 37:603608.
  • 53
    Seale, J. P., J. D. Seale, M. Alvarado, R. L. Vogel, and N. E. Terry. 2002. Prevalence of problem drinking in a Venezuelan Native American population. Alcohol Alcohol. 37:198204.
  • 54
    Blas, M. M., I. E. Alva, P. J. Garcia, C. Carcamo, S. M. Montano, R. Munante, et al. 2012. Association between human papillomavirus and human t-lymphotropic virus in indigenous women from the Peruvian Amazon. PLoS ONE 7:e44240.
  • 55
    Cervantes, J., C. Lema, L. Hurtado, R. Andrade, G. Quiroga, G. Garcia, et al. 2003. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in rural villages of the Bolivian Amazon. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo 45:131135.
  • 56
    Hurtig, A. K., and M. San Sebastián. 2004. Incidence of childhood leukemia and oil exploitation in the Amazon basin of Ecuador. Int. J. Occup. Environ. Health 10:245250.
  • 57
    Kelsh, M. A., L. Morimoto, and E. Lau. 2009. Cancer mortality and oil production in the Amazon Region of Ecuador, 1990–2005. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 82:381395.
  • 58
    da Silva, E. P., S. M. Pelloso, M. D. Carvalho, and M. J. Toledo. 2009. Exploring breast cancer risk factors in Kaingang women in the Faxinal indigenous Territory, Parana State, Brazil, 2008. Cad. Saude Publica 25:14931500.
  • 59
    Speck, N. M., E. R. Pereira, M. Schaper, F. K. Tso, V. de Freitas, and J. C. Ribalta. 2009. Uterine cervical neoplasia prevention in Parque Indigena do Xingu. Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol. 30:415417.
  • 60
    Maldonado, M., F. Jácome, E. Almendariz, and F. Males. 1997. Detección oportuna de cáncer de cervix en mujeres indígenas, en el área rural de Guasuntos, Chimborazo 1997. Rev. Cient. Actual 12:6870.
  • 61
    Roue, T., M. Nacher, A. Fior, J. Plenet, S. Belliardo, N. Gandolfo, et al. 2012. Cervical cancer incidence in French Guiana: South American. Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer 22:850853.
  • 62
    Agurto, I., A. Bishop, G. Sanchez, Z. Betancourt, and S. Robles. 2004. Perceived barriers and benefits to cervical cancer screening in Latin America. Prev. Med. 39:9198.
  • 63
    Sosa-Rubi, S. G., D. Walker, and E. Servan. 2009. Práctica de mastografías y pruebas de Papanicolaou entre mujeres de áreas rurales de México. Salud Publica Mex. 51:s236s245.
  • 64
    Almonte, M., R. Murillo, G. I. Sanchez, J. Jeronimo, J. Salmeron, C. Ferreccio, et al. 2010. New paradigms and challenges in cervical cancer prevention and control in Latin America. Salud Publica Mex. 52:544559.
  • 65
    de Martel, C., J. Ferlay, S. Franceschi, J. Vignat, F. Bray, D. Forman, et al. 2012. Global burden of cancers attributable to infections in 2008: a review and synthetic analysis. Lancet Oncol. 13:607615.
  • 66
    Bray, F., A. Jemal, N. Grey, J. Ferlay, and D. Forman. 2012. Global cancer transitions according to the Human Development Index (2008–2030): a population-based study. Lancet Oncol. 13:790801.
  • 67
    Munoz, N., E. L. Franco, R. Herrero, J. K. Andrus, C. de Quadros, S. J. Goldie, et al. 2008. Recommendations for cervical cancer prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean. Vaccine 26(Suppl 11):L96L107.
  • 68
    Castro-Jimenez, M. A., P. A. Londono-Cuellar, and L. M. Vera-Cala. 2006. Asistencia a citologia del cuello uterino y sus determinantes en una poblacion rural colombiana, 1998-1999. Rev. Salud Publica 8:248257.
  • 69
    Robles, S., J. Vega, and S. Corber. 2001. Pp. 7684 in Noncommunicable diseases and risk factor surveillance: equity and health: views from the Pan American Sanitary Bureau. PAHO, Washington D.C.
  • 70
    Thomas, D. P. 2009. Smoking prevalence trends in indigenous Australians, 1994–2004: a typical rather than an exceptional epidemic. Int. J. Equity Health 8:37.
  • 71
    Kuhnlein, H. V., O. Receveur, R. Soueida, and G. M. Egeland. 2004. Arctic indigenous peoples experience the nutrition transition with changing dietary patterns and obesity. J. Nutr. 134:14471453.
  • 72
    San Sebastián, M., B. Armstrong, J. A. Cordoba, and C. Stephens. 2001. Exposures and cancer incidence near oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador. Occup. Environ. Med. 58:517522.
  • 73
    New Zealand Ministry of Health. 2011. Maori health: statistics, health status indicators. Available at (accessed 13 December 2011).
  • 74
    Wiggins, C. L., D. K. Espey, P. A. Wingo, J. S. Kaur, R. T. Wilson, J. Swan, et al. 2008. Cancer among American Indians and Alaska Natives in the United States, 1999–2004. Cancer 113:11421152.
  • 75
    Layton, M. H., and H. A. Patrinos. 2006. Estimating the number of indigenous peoples in Latin America. Pp. 2540 in G. Hall and H. A. Patrinos, eds. Indigenous people, poverty, and human development in Latin America: 1994–2004. Palgrave Macmillan, New York.
  • 76
    Okediji, T. O. 2004. The dynamics of race, ethnicity and economic development: the Brazilian experience. J. Socio Econ. 33:201215.
  • 77
    Santos, R. V., and P. Teixeira. 2011. The ‘indigenous’ category in the 2010 Brazilian National census. Cad. Saúde Pública 27:10481049.
  • 78
    Glaser, S. L., C. A. Clarke, S. L. Gomez, C. D. O'Malley, D. M. Purdie, and D. W. West. 2005. Cancer surveillance research: a vital subdiscipline of cancer epidemiology. Cancer Causes Control 16:10091019.
  • 79
    Howe, H. L., B. K. Edwards, J. L. Young, T. Shen, D. W. West, M. Hutton, et al. 2003. A vision for cancer incidence surveillance in the United States. Cancer Causes Control 14:663672.
  • 80
    Espey, D. K., C. L. Wiggins, M. A. Jim, B. A. Miller, C. J. Johnson, and T. M. Becker. 2008. Methods for improving cancer surveillance data in American Indian and Alaska Native populations. Cancer 113:11201130.
  • 81
    Marmot, M. 2005. Social determinants of health inequalities. Lancet 365:10991104.
  • 82
    Waage, J., R. Banerji, O. Campbell, E. Chirwa, G. Collender, V. Dieltiens, et al. 2010. The millennium development goals: a cross-sectoral analysis and principles for goal setting after 2015 Lancet and London International Development Centre Commission. Lancet 376:9911023.
  • 83
    Freeman, H. 1991. Race, poverty, and cancer. J. Natl Cancer Inst. 83:526527.
  • 84
    Jacobs, B., J. Roffenbender, J. Collmann, K. Cherry, L. L. Bitsoi, K. Bassett, et al. 2010. Bridging the divide between genomic science and indigenous peoples. J. Law Med. Ethics 38:684696.
  • 85
    Salaverry, O. 2013. Back to the roots: traditional medicine for cancer control in Latin America and the Caribbean. Lancet Oncol. 14:384.
  • 86
    PAHO & WHO. 2007. Health in the Americas 2007. Report No.: II. WHO, Washington D.C.
  • 87
    Dzuba, I. G., R. Caldern, S. Bliesner, S. Luciani, F. Amado, and M. Jacob. 2005. A participatory assessment to identify strategies for improved cervical cancer prevention and treatment in Bolivia. Rev. Panam. Salud Publica 18:5363.
  • 88
    McGrath, P., H. Holewa, K. Ogilvie, R. Rayner, and M. A. Patton. 2006. Insights on aboriginal peoples' views of cancer in Australia. Contemp. Nurse 22:240254.
  • 89
    Prior, D. 2006. Aboriginal women's perception of cancer. Aust. Nurs. J. 13:27.
  • 90
    Hunt, L. M. 1998. Moral reasoning and the meaning of cancer: causal explanations of oncologists and patients in southern Mexico. Med. Anthropol. Q. 12:298318.
  • 91
    Newman, C., P. Butow, R. Knight, K. McMillan, C. Treloar, S. Kippax, et al. 2008. Cancer and aboriginal people in Australia: a review of the literature. Crit. Public Health 18:6575.
  • 92
    UNHCR Refworld. 2007. World directory of minorities and indigenous peoples. Available at (accessed 2 February 2012).
  • 93
    El Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos (INDEC) Argentina. 2006. Encuesta Complementaria de Pueblos Indígenas. Available at (accessed 2 March 2013).
  • 94
    San Sebastián, M., and A. K. Hurtig. 2004. Cancer among indigenous people in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador, 1985–2000. Rev. Panam. Salud Publica 16:328333.
  • 95
    Hall, G., and H. A. Patrinos. 2012. World Bank indigenous peoples policy brief. World Bank, Washington, DC.