We explored linkages among different components of emotional competence and bullying and victimization in children enrolled in community after school programs. Seventy-seven children were recruited from after school programs and their display rule knowledge for sadness and anger was evaluated. Their emotion self-regulation skills and bullying experiences were also assessed. Knowledge of display rules for sadness was a negative predictor of physical victimization whereas emotional lability/negativity was positively related to bullying. Boys bullied more than girls and family income was negatively related to bullying and emotional lability/negativity and positively associated with emotion self-regulation. Emotion self-regulation mediated the relation between family income and bullying. Analyses also suggested that bullies and bully-victims had poorer emotion self-regulation skills than non-bullies/victims or victims. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.