• dynamic animation;
  • procedural animation;
  • real-time;
  • arthropods;
  • spiders;
  • insects


We describe a system for dynamically animating the locomotive behaviour of arthropods (insects, spiders and numerous other species) in real-time, facilitating realistic and autonomous traversal across an arbitrary environment. By combining a decentralised reactive behavioural model with a hybrid approach to motion that utilises the comparative advantages of physical simulation and kinematic control, our system is capable of automatically generating complex organic motion over a wide range of surface features, independent of structural complexity. The reactive embodiment of the creature, combined with the physical simulation of the virtual world enables the formation of emergent behaviours that are entirely based on circumstance, including rigid-body interaction, grip recovery and adaptive wall climbing. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.