• bubbles;
  • water–solid interaction;
  • particle-based method;
  • smoothed particle hydrodynamics


In this paper, a particle-based multiphase method for creating realistic animations of bubbles in water–solid interaction is presented. To generate bubbles from gas dissolved in the water on the fly, we propose an approximate model for the creation of bubbles, which takes into account the influence of gas concentration in the water, the solid material, and water–solid velocity difference. As the air particle on the bubble surface is treated as a virtual nucleation site, the bubble absorbs air from surrounding water and grows. The density and pressure forces of air bubbles are computed separately using smoothed particle hydrodynamics; then, the two-way coupling of bubbles with water and solid is solved by a new drag force, so the generated bubbles’ flow on the surface of solid and the deformation in the rising process can be simulated. Additionally, touching bubbles merge together under the cohesion forces weighted by the smoothing kernel and velocity difference. The experimental results show that this method is capable of simulating bubbles in water–solid interaction under different physical conditions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.