Some 23 analogues of the potent acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor territrem B (1) were designed, synthesized, and tested for their biological activities. Some of the new synthetic derivatives exhibited IC50 values for AChE inhibition in the upper micromolar range. Molecular-modeling studies indicated that a planar conformation seems to be crucial for AChE inhibition. The two N-atoms of the piperazine moieties in 5o, 5p, and 5r might further enhance the inhibitory effects. The cytotoxicities of selected compounds against six human tumor cell lines were also determined.