• Isoquinoline alkaloids;
  • DNA;
  • Alkaloids;
  • Calorimetry;
  • Berberine;
  • Palmatine;
  • Coralyne


The interaction of berberine, palmatine, and coralyne with the B, Z, and HL form of poly[d(G-C)] was studied. Berberine and palmatine showed moderate binding to the B form, while coralyne showed higher binding, as revealed from spectroscopic and thermodynamic data. Berberine and coralyne binding to the B form was exothermic and enthalpy-driven, while palmatine showed exothermic binding which was favored by both negative enthalpy and negative entropy changes. Berberine and palmatine neither bind nor converted the Z-form structure to B form. Coralyne, on the other hand, exhibited a strong binding affinity to Z DNA structure that was enthalpy-driven. Berberine binding to the HL form was cooperative, exothermic, and favored by both negative enthalpy and negative entropy changes with the formation of an induced CD band. Palmatine showed weak binding, while coralyne showed a strong binding with the HL form. The structural differences in the isoquinoline alkaloids appear to influence the affinity and mode of interactions with these polymorphic DNA structures.