• Xylopia aethiopica;
  • Essential oils;
  • Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA);
  • Principal-component analysis (PCA)


The chemical composition of 48 essential-oil samples isolated from the leaves of Xylopia aethiopica harvested in six Ivoirian forests was investigated by GC-FID and 13C-NMR analyses. In total, 23 components accounting for 82.5–96.1% of the oil composition were identified. The composition was dominated by the monoterpene hydrocarbons β-pinene (up to 61.1%) and α-pinene (up to 18.6%) and the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon germacrene D (up to 28.7%). Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses allowed the distinction of two groups on the basis of the β-pinene and germacrene D contents. The chemical composition of the oils of Group I (38 oil samples) was clearly dominated by β-pinene, while those of Group II (10 samples) were characterized by the association of β-pinene and germacrene D. The leaves collected in the four inland forests produced β-pinene-rich oils (Group I), while the oil samples belonging to Group II were isolated from leaves harvested in forests located near the littoral.