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Keywords:

  • biocatalysis;
  • C[BOND]H activation;
  • crystal structure;
  • cytochrome P450;
  • heme proteins

Abstract

CYP101C1 from Novosphingobium aromaticivorans DSM12444 is a homologue of CYP101D1 and CYP101D2 enzymes from the same bacterium and CYP101A1 from Pseudomonas putida. CYP101C1 does not bind camphor but is capable of binding and hydroxylating ionone derivatives including α- and β-ionone and β-damascone. The activity of CYP101C1 was highest with β-damascone (kcat=86 s−1) but α-ionone oxidation was the most regioselective (98 % at C3). The crystal structures of hexane-2,5-diol- and β-ionone-bound CYP101C1 have been solved; both have open conformations and the hexanediol-bound form has a clear access channel from the heme to the bulk solvent. The entrance of this channel is blocked when β-ionone binds to the enzyme. The heme moiety of CYP101C1 is in a significantly different environment compared to the other structurally characterised CYP101 enzymes. The likely ferredoxin binding site on the proximal face of CYP101C1 has a different topology but a similar overall positive charge compared to CYP101D1 and CYP101D2, all of which accept electrons from the ArR/Arx class I electron transfer system.