Influence of Substrate Dideuteration on the Reaction of the Bifunctional Heme Enzyme Psi Factor Producing Oxygenase A (PpoA)

Authors

  • Dr. André Nadler,

    1. Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Institut für Organische und Biomolekulare Chemie, Tammannstrasse 2, 37077 Göttingen (Germany), Fax: (+49) 551-3922944
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Christian Koch,

    1. Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Albrecht-von-Haller Institut für Pflanzenwissenschaften, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany), Fax: (+49) 551-395749
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Dr. Florian Brodhun,

    1. Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Albrecht-von-Haller Institut für Pflanzenwissenschaften, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany), Fax: (+49) 551-395749
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  • Jan-Dirk Wehland,

    1. Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Institut für Organische und Biomolekulare Chemie, Tammannstrasse 2, 37077 Göttingen (Germany), Fax: (+49) 551-3922944
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  • Prof. Dr. Kai Tittmann,

    1. Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Albrecht-von-Haller Institut für Pflanzenwissenschaften, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany), Fax: (+49) 551-395749
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  • Prof. Dr. Ivo Feussner,

    Corresponding author
    1. Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Albrecht-von-Haller Institut für Pflanzenwissenschaften, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany), Fax: (+49) 551-395749
    • Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Albrecht-von-Haller Institut für Pflanzenwissenschaften, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany), Fax: (+49) 551-395749
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  • Prof. Dr. Ulf Diederichsen

    Corresponding author
    1. Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Institut für Organische und Biomolekulare Chemie, Tammannstrasse 2, 37077 Göttingen (Germany), Fax: (+49) 551-3922944
    • Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Institut für Organische und Biomolekulare Chemie, Tammannstrasse 2, 37077 Göttingen (Germany), Fax: (+49) 551-3922944
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Abstract

PpoA is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the dioxygenation of unsaturated C18 fatty acids. The products of this reaction are termed psi factors and have been shown to play a crucial role in conferring a balance between sexual and asexual spore development as well as production of secondary metabolites in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Studies on the reaction mechanism revealed that PpoA uses two different heme domains to catalyze two subsequent reactions. Initially, the fatty acid substrate is dioxygenated at C8, yielding an 8-hydroperoxy fatty acid at the N-terminal domain. This reaction is catalyzed by a peroxidase/dioxygenase-type domain that exhibits many similarities to prostaglandin H2 synthases and involves a stereospecific homolytic hydrogen abstraction from C8 of the substrate. The C terminus harbors a heme thiolate P450 domain in which rearrangement of the 8-hydroperoxide to the final product, a 5,8-dihydroxy fatty acid, takes place. To obtain further information about the intrinsic kinetics and reaction mechanism of PpoA, we synthesized C5-dideutero- and C8-dideutero-oleic acid by a novel protocol that offers a straightforward synthesis without employing the toxic additive hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) during C[BOND]C coupling reactions or mercury salts upon thioketal deprotection. These deuterated fatty acids were then employed for kinetic analysis under multiple-turnover conditions. The results indicate that the hydrogen abstraction at C8 is the rate-determining step of the overall reaction because we observed a KIE (VH/VD) of ∼33 at substrate saturation that suggests extensive nuclear tunneling contributions for hydrogen transfer. Deuteration of the substrate at C5, however, had little effect on VH/VD but resulted in a different product pattern presumably due to an altered lifetime and partitioning of a reaction intermediate.

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