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Transport of Free and Peptide-Bound Glycated Amino Acids: Synthesis, Transepithelial Flux at Caco-2 Cell Monolayers, and Interaction with Apical Membrane Transport Proteins



In glycation reactions, the side chains of protein-bound nucleophilic amino acids such as lysine and arginine are post-translationally modified to a variety of derivatives also known as Maillard reaction products (MRPs). Considerable amounts of MRPs are taken up in food. Here we have studied the interactions of free and dipeptide-bound MRPs with intestinal transport systems. Free and dipeptide-bound derivatives of N6-(1-fructosyl)lysine (FL), N6-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), N6-(1-carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), formyline, argpyrimidine, and methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone 1 (MG-H1) were synthesized. The inhibition of L-[3H]lysine and [14C]glycylsarcosine uptakes was measured in Caco-2 cells which express the H+/peptide transporter PEPT1 and lysine transport system(s). Glycated amino acids always displayed lower affinities than their unmodified analogues towards the L-[3H]lysine transporter(s). In contrast, all glycated dipeptides except Ala-FL were medium- to high-affinity inhibitors of [14C]Gly-Sar uptake. The transepithelial flux of the derivatives across Caco-2 cell monolayers was determined. Free amino acids and intact peptides derived from CML and CEL were translocated to very small extents. Application of peptide-bound MRPs, however, led to elevation (up to 80-fold) of the net flux and intracellular accumulation of glycated amino acids, which were hydrolyzed from the dipeptides inside the cells. We conclude 1) that free MRPs are not substrates for the intestinal lysine transporter(s), and 2) that dietary MRPs are absorbed into intestinal cells in the form of dipeptides, most likely by the peptide transporter PEPT1. After hydrolysis, hydrophobic glycated amino acids such as pyrraline, formyline, maltosine, and argpyrimidine undergo basolateral efflux, most likely by simple diffusion down their concentration gradients.