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Fatty Acyl-AMP Ligase Involvement in the Production of Alkylresorcylic Acid by a Myxococcus xanthus Type III Polyketide Synthase

Authors

  • Takayuki Hayashi,

    1. Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8567 (Japan)
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  • Yuta Kitamura,

    1. Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8567 (Japan)
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  • Prof. Nobutaka Funa,

    1. Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8567 (Japan)
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  • Prof. Yasuo Ohnishi,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8567 (Japan)
    • Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8567 (Japan)
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  • Prof. Sueharu Horinouchi

    1. Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8567 (Japan)
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    • Deceased on 12th July 2009.


Abstract

Fatty acyl-AMP ligases (FAALs) activate fatty acids as acyladenylates, and subsequently catalyze their transfer onto the acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) of polyketide synthases (PKSs) or nonribosomal peptide synthetases to produce lipidic metabolites. Myxococcus xanthus contains a polyketide biosynthesis gene cluster in which putative FAAL (FtpD) and ACP (FtpC) genes are located close to a type III PKS (FtpA) gene. Here we describe the characterization of these three proteins in vitro. FtpD adenylated stearic acid and produced stearoyl-FtpC. The stearoyl moiety was then transferred to FtpA. When extender substrates (malonyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA) were added to the reaction, the alkylresorcinol 5-heptadecyl-4-methyl-benzene-1,3-diol was synthesized. Further in vitro analysis indicated that FtpA produces an alkylresorcylic acid as the direct product, and that this decarboxylates to alkylresorcinol nonenzymatically. This is the first report of a FAAL supplying a long-chain fatty acyl-ACP starter substrate to a type III PKS.

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