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Keywords:

  • C-type lectin receptors;
  • glycosides;
  • homeostatic balance;
  • mutagenesis;
  • serum N-glycomics

Abstract

Gene knock-out of C-type lectin receptors expressed in dendritic cells induced significant alteration of serum N-glycans compared with that of gender-matched controls. Glycotyping analysis suggested that putative-core fucosylation is strongly influenced by differences in the dominant mechanisms after carbohydrate recognition by pattern-recognition receptors, endocytosis of ligands, or induction of cytokines/chemokines. However, the loss of galectin-9, a ligand for T-helper type 1-specific cell-surface molecule, did not affect most N-glycan profiles. Interestingly, lack of the Chst3 gene (chondroitin 6-sulfotransferase) appeared to influence markedly the expression of most N-glycans, especially highly modified glycoforms bearing multiple Neu5Gc, Fuc, and LacNAc units. In contrast, genetic mutations in B4galnt1 and B4galnt2 (GalNAc transferase, responsible for the synthesis of many gangliosides) induced no discernable alteration. These results indicate that the biosynthesis of N-glycans of serum glycoproteins can be affected not only by direct genetic mutations in the glycosyltransferases but also by changes in metabolite availability in sugar nucleotide synthesis and Golgi N-glycosylation pathways caused concertedly in whole cells, tissues, and organs by milder deficiencies in immune cell-surface lectins. Many common chronic conditions, such as autoimmunity, metabolic syndrome, and aging/dementia result.