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Keywords:

  • antibiotic;
  • Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenases;
  • biosynthesis;
  • hygrocins;
  • luciferase-like monooxygenases

Abstract

Hygrocins are naphthoquinone ansamycins with significant antitumor activities. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the hygrocin biosynthetic gene cluster (hgc) in Streptomyces sp. LZ35. A biosynthetic pathway is proposed based on bioinformatics analysis of the hgc genes and intermediates accumulated in selected gene disruption mutants. One of the steps during the biosynthesis of hygrocins is a Baeyer–Villiger oxidation between C5 and C6, catalyzed by luciferase-like monooxygenase homologue Hgc3. Hgc3 represents the founding member of a previously uncharacterized family of enzymes acting as Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenases.