Biosynthesis of the Insecticidal Xenocyloins in Xenorhabdus bovienii

Authors

  • Anna Proschak,

    1. Merck Stiftungsprofessur für Molekulare Biotechnologie, Fachbereich Biowissenschaften, Göthe Universität Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
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  • Qiuqin Zhou,

    1. Merck Stiftungsprofessur für Molekulare Biotechnologie, Fachbereich Biowissenschaften, Göthe Universität Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
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  • Tim Schöner,

    1. Merck Stiftungsprofessur für Molekulare Biotechnologie, Fachbereich Biowissenschaften, Göthe Universität Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
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  • Dr. Aunchalee Thanwisai,

    1. Merck Stiftungsprofessur für Molekulare Biotechnologie, Fachbereich Biowissenschaften, Göthe Universität Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
    2. Department of Microbiology and Parasiology, Faculty of Medical Science, Naresuan University, 99 Moo 9, Phitsanulok-Nakhon Sawan Road, Tha Pho, Mueang Phitsanulok, 65000 Phitsanulok (Thailand)
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  • Darko Kresovic,

    1. Merck Stiftungsprofessur für Molekulare Biotechnologie, Fachbereich Biowissenschaften, Göthe Universität Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
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  • Dr. Andrea Dowling,

    1. Biosciences, University of Exeter in Cornwall, Tremough Campus, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9EZ (UK)
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  • Prof. Dr. Richard ffrench-Constant,

    1. Biosciences, University of Exeter in Cornwall, Tremough Campus, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9EZ (UK)
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  • Prof. Dr. Ewgenij Proschak,

    1. Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Göthe Universität Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
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  • Prof. Dr. Helge B. Bode

    Corresponding author
    1. Merck Stiftungsprofessur für Molekulare Biotechnologie, Fachbereich Biowissenschaften, Göthe Universität Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
    • Merck Stiftungsprofessur für Molekulare Biotechnologie, Fachbereich Biowissenschaften, Göthe Universität Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

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Abstract

The biosynthesis gene cluster for the production of xenocyloins was identified in the entomopathogenic bacterium Xenorhabdus bovienii SS-2004, and their biosynthesis was elucidated by heterologous expression and in vitro characterization of the enzymes. XclA is an S-selective ThDP-dependent acyloin-like condensation enzyme, and XclB and XclC are examples of the still-rare acylating ketosynthases that catalyze the acylation of the XclA-derived initial xenocyloins with acetyl-, propionyl-, or malonyl-CoA, thereby resulting in the formation of further xenocyloin derivatives. All xenocyloins were produced mainly by the more virulent primary variant of X. bovienii and showed activity against insect hemocytes thus contributing to the overall virulence of X. bovienii against insects.

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