Different Enzymatic Processing of γ-Phosphoramidate and γ-Phosphoester-Modified ATP Analogues



Monitoring the activity of ATP-consuming enzymes provides the basis for elucidating their modes of action and regulation. Although a number of ATP analogues have been developed for this, their scope is restricted because of the limited acceptance by respective enzymes. In order to clarify which kind of phosphate-modified ATP analogues are accepted by the α-β-phosphoanhydride-cleaving ubiquitin-activating enzyme 1 (UBA1) and the β-γ-phosphoanhydride-cleaving focal adhesion kinase (FAK), we tested phosphoramidate- and phosphoester-modified ATP analogues. UBA1 and FAK were able to convert phosphoramidate-modified ATP analogues, even with a bulky modification like biotin. In contrast, a phosphoester-modified analogue was poorly accepted. These results demonstrate that minor variations in the design of ATP analogues for monitoring ATP utilization have a significant impact on enzymatic acceptance.