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Mycophenolic acid regulates spleen tyrosine kinase to repress tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced monocyte chemotatic protein-1 production in cultured human aortic endothelial cells



Atherosclerosis develops from cascades of inflammatory processes. Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and monocyte chemotatic protein-1 (MCP-1) play important roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Mycophenolic acid (MPA) has an anti-inflammatory effect. We have investigated whether MPA regulates Syk to repress tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced MCP-1 production in cultured human aortic endothelial cells. Expression of MCP-1 mRNA and its protein were measured by real time RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were measured using 2′7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. Activation of AP-1 and NF-κB were assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk was examined by Western blot analysis. TNF-α increased MCP-1 at both mRNA and protein levels. TNF-α-induced MCP-1 mRNA expression was inhibited by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), Syk inhibitor, Syk-siRNA and MPA. TNF-α-induced MCP-1 protein production was also inhibited by Syk inhibitor and MPA. TNF-α increased DNA binding activity of AP-1 and NF-κB, whereas both AP-1 and NF-κB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides downregulated TNF-α-induced MCP-1 mRNA expression. TNF-α increased ROS generation, which was inhibited by NAC and MPA, but not by Syk inhibitor. TNF-α increased tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk, which was attenuated by NAC and MPA. MPA and Syk inhibitor attenuated TNF-α-induced DNA binding activity of NF-κB and AP-1. TNF-α induced MCP-1 expression via activation of AP-1 and NF-κB. AP-1 and NF-κB were mediated through ROS, followed by Syk. MPA exerts anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting MCP-1 expression via suppression of ROS and Syk.