To explore the relevance of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to liver regeneration (LR), rat models of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and LR were established, respectively, then Rat Genome 230 2.0 Array was used to detect the gene expression abundance of them, and the reliabilities of the array data were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. As a result, the expression of 93 genes was significantly changed during NAFLD occurrence and 948 genes in LR. Hierarchical clustering indicated that the expression profiles of the above two events were quite different. K-means cluster classified their expression patterns into four clusters, and gene expression trends of clusters 1, 2 were similar in NAFLD and LR, while clusters 3, 4 were contrary with the gene expression changes of LR more abundant. DAVID classifications and functional enrichment analysis found that lipid metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism were stronger in NAFLD than in LR, but some other physiological activities including inflammation/immune response, cell adhesion, and migration, cell proliferation and differentiation in NAFLD were weaker than in LR. IPA further indicated that lipid metabolism, inflammation response, and cellular development were highly associated with NAFLD, and thus identified some potential biomarkers for NAFLD.