Coronary artery angiography remains an important procedure for the assessment of coronary arteries. It requires injection of iodinated contrast for the opacification of coronary arteries. Severe allergy to iodine contrast and renal insufficiency are two main problems with iodine-based contrast media. Gadolinium (Gd) has different chemical structure with no cross reactivity with iodine-based contrast media in patients with iodine allergy. The use of Gd is commonly used in contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for image enhancement, making it a potential alternative in patients in whom iodine is contraindicated. The aim of this manuscript is to review the available literature on the use of Gd in patients with contraindication to iodine contrast due to allergy or in patients with severe renal failure requiring coronary or vascular procedures. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.