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Keywords:

  • carotid artery stenosis;
  • angioplasty;
  • stenting;
  • cephalad arteries

Abstract

Introduction: Carotid artery stenting (CAS) has become an alternative to carotid endarterectomy. Moreover, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) allows other cephalad arteries revascularization. The aim of this study was to evaluate late outcomes of cephalad arteries PTA. Methods: This is an international multicenter registry of 434 consecutive patients in which 497 PTAs were performed. Patients with symptomatic >50% stenosis or asymptomatic >70% stenosis were enrolled. Stenting of 577 internal carotid arteries (ICA) and 13 common carotid arteries was performed, 20.7% procedures were complex in which bilateral carotid stenoses or carotid and vertebral arteries stenoses were revascularized at one stage. In 15.9% patients, one-stage coronary intervention was carried out. Distal protection devices were used in 69.6% of cases. PTAs were divided into high (n = 330) and low (n = 167) risk of major adverse coronary and cerebral events (MACCE). Results: At 30 days, there were 15 (3.5%) cases of MACCE [0.9% deaths, 2.1% strokes, and 0.9% myocardial infarction (MI)]. TIAs were observed in 15 (3.9%) patients. There was no significant difference in stroke incidence between procedures with or without neuroprotection (1.8 vs. 3%; P = 0.66) as well as in MACCE occurrence between high and low-risk groups (4.3 vs. 2%; P = 0.34). Bilateral stenoses increased while hypertension decreased the risk of MACCE. Left ICA lesions increased the risk of cerebrovascular accidents (CVA). At 4 years (1–11 years), the mortality rate was 11.5%, 6% of patients had stroke, and 3% MIs. Restenosis occurred in 3%. There was a trend toward higher mortality rate (13.3 vs. 6.9%; P = 0.07) and MACCE risk in high-risk group (23.5 vs.14.7% P = 0.06). Age > 65 y.o. and stent length < 24 mm increased, while the statin therapy on admission decreased the risk of long-term death. Structural valve disease and stent length <30 mm increased the risk of MACCE, while implantation of Acculink stent decreased the risk of CVA. Conclusions: CAS is safe and successful procedure with low early and long-term adverse events. Special attention should be put on patients with bilateral and left ICA stenoses. If possible, longer stents should be applied. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.