Conflict of interest: Dr. Varga-Szemes is employee, Dr. Kiss was employee, Dr. Simor is consultant, and Dr. Elgavish is officer, of Elgavish Paramagnetics Inc.
Coronary Artery Disease
Embozene™ microspheres induced nonreperfused myocardial infarction in an experimental swine model
Article first published online: 4 MAY 2012
Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Volume 81, Issue 4, pages 689–697, March 2013
How to Cite
Varga-Szemes, A., Kiss, P., Brott, B. C., Wang, D., Simor, T. and Elgavish, G. A. (2013), Embozene™ microspheres induced nonreperfused myocardial infarction in an experimental swine model. Cathet. Cardiovasc. Intervent., 81: 689–697. doi: 10.1002/ccd.24418
- Issue published online: 22 FEB 2013
- Article first published online: 4 MAY 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 19 MAR 2012 11:36AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 6 MAR 2012
- Manuscript Received: 2 MAR 2012
- National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Grant Number: 5R42 HL080886
- myocardial infarct model;
- microsphere embolization;
- magnetic resonance imaging
To develop a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatible, percutaneous technique for the generation of nonreperfused myocardial infarct (MI).
Modeling nontreated MI has major importance in the development and preclinical testing of new therapeutic strategies for patients missing the time window suitable for revascularization following MI.
In 31 male swine, nonreperfused MI was generated by permanent occlusion of either the LAD or LCX coronary artery using 900 μm Embozene™ microspheres. Animals were monitored for 90 min postocclusion. Surviving animals were followed up for 2 (n = 6), 4 (n = 6), 14 (n = 6), or 56 (n = 6) days. At the end of the planned study session, contrast enhanced MRI, triphenyl-tetrazolium-chloride staining, and microscopic histopathology were carried out.
The mortality rate in this study was 22.6%. Intraoperative arrhythmias occurred in 14 cases: premature ventricular complexes with (5) or without (3) ventricular tachycardia, 2nd degree atrio-ventricular block (1), and ventricular fibrillation (6). MRI, TTC, and histology confirmed the existence of MI in every case. Macroscopic pathology showed that the microspheres caused a practically total occlusion at the epicardial level of the coronary artery. Multiple infarcts were detected in one case, probably due to unintentional reflux of the microspheres. Microspheres retained in the coronary arteries did not cause any MRI artifact.
The generation of nonreperfused MI is feasible by percutaneous injection of Embozene into the coronary artery system. The MI model thus obtained is suitable for the purposes of MRI experiments. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.