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Embozene™ microspheres induced nonreperfused myocardial infarction in an experimental swine model

Authors

  • Akos Varga-Szemes MD,

    1. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama
    2. Elgavish Paramagnetics Inc., Birmingham, Alabama
    3. Heart Institute, Medical School, University of Pecs, Hungary
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  • Pal Kiss MD, PhD,

    1. Elgavish Paramagnetics Inc., Birmingham, Alabama
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    • Conflict of interest: Dr. Varga-Szemes is employee, Dr. Kiss was employee, Dr. Simor is consultant, and Dr. Elgavish is officer, of Elgavish Paramagnetics Inc.

  • Brigitta C. Brott MD,

    1. Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama
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  • Dezhi Wang MD,

    1. Department of Pathology, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama
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  • Tamas Simor MD, PhD,

    1. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama
    2. Elgavish Paramagnetics Inc., Birmingham, Alabama
    3. Heart Institute, Medical School, University of Pecs, Hungary
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    • Conflict of interest: Dr. Varga-Szemes is employee, Dr. Kiss was employee, Dr. Simor is consultant, and Dr. Elgavish is officer, of Elgavish Paramagnetics Inc.

  • Gabriel A. Elgavish PhD

    Corresponding author
    1. Elgavish Paramagnetics Inc., Birmingham, Alabama
    2. Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama
    • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama
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    • Conflict of interest: Dr. Varga-Szemes is employee, Dr. Kiss was employee, Dr. Simor is consultant, and Dr. Elgavish is officer, of Elgavish Paramagnetics Inc.


Correspondence to: Gabriel A. Elgavish, PhD, Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Genetics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, MCLM 556, Birmingham, AL 35294-0005. E-mail: gabi@uab.edu

Abstract

Objectives

To develop a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatible, percutaneous technique for the generation of nonreperfused myocardial infarct (MI).

Background

Modeling nontreated MI has major importance in the development and preclinical testing of new therapeutic strategies for patients missing the time window suitable for revascularization following MI.

Methods

In 31 male swine, nonreperfused MI was generated by permanent occlusion of either the LAD or LCX coronary artery using 900 μm Embozene™ microspheres. Animals were monitored for 90 min postocclusion. Surviving animals were followed up for 2 (n = 6), 4 (n = 6), 14 (n = 6), or 56 (n = 6) days. At the end of the planned study session, contrast enhanced MRI, triphenyl-tetrazolium-chloride staining, and microscopic histopathology were carried out.

Results

The mortality rate in this study was 22.6%. Intraoperative arrhythmias occurred in 14 cases: premature ventricular complexes with (5) or without (3) ventricular tachycardia, 2nd degree atrio-ventricular block (1), and ventricular fibrillation (6). MRI, TTC, and histology confirmed the existence of MI in every case. Macroscopic pathology showed that the microspheres caused a practically total occlusion at the epicardial level of the coronary artery. Multiple infarcts were detected in one case, probably due to unintentional reflux of the microspheres. Microspheres retained in the coronary arteries did not cause any MRI artifact.

Conclusions

The generation of nonreperfused MI is feasible by percutaneous injection of Embozene into the coronary artery system. The MI model thus obtained is suitable for the purposes of MRI experiments. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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