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Aims: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is frequently accompanied by myocardial injury. The present study was performed to determine whether remote ischemic preconditioning (IP) induces cardioprotection during PCI. Methods: We enrolled 95 patients requiring nonemergency PCI for stable disease or unstable angina into this prospective clinical trial. Patients were randomized to either remote IP (induced by three 3-min cycles of blood pressure cuff inflations to 200 mm Hg around the upper arm, followed by 3-min of reperfusion n = 47) or sham control (n = 48) immediately preceding PCI. The primary outcome measure was the frequency of post-PCI myonecrosis, defined as a peak postprocedural cTnT T ≥0.03 ng/dL. Secondary outcome measures were the change in plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels following PCI and in endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) counts following IP. Results: There was no difference in the primary endpoint of the frequency of PCI related myonecrosis which occurred in 22 (47%) and 19 (40%) patients in the remote IP and control groups, respectively, P = 0.42. There was significant increase in hsCRP post-PCI in both groups (P < 0.001), but there was no difference between the groups (median %change in hsCRP 46% vs. 54%, P = 0.73). There was no significant change in circulating early (CD34 −/CD133+/KDR+), intermediate (CD34+/CD133+/KDR+), or late (CD34+/CD133−/KDR+) EPC in the two groups immediately following IP. The composite rate of death, myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization at 1 year was 14.1% versus 13.7% (P = 0.90). Conclusions: Our study indicates that remote IP immediately before PCI does not induce cardioprotection in low to moderate risk patients. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.