Transventricular balloon dilation and stenting of the RVOT in small infants with tetralogy of fallot with pulmonary atresia


  • Conflict of interest: Nothing to report.



The management of small infants with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) with pulmonary atresia (PA) and hypoplastic pulmonary arteries can be very challenging.


In three small infants (weight range 2,200–3,600 g, pulmonary trunk 2.0–3.2 mm), initial palliation consisted of sternotomy, transventricular puncture of the right ventricular outflow tract and atretic pulmonary valve, followed by balloon dilation (n = 1) or stent deployment (n = 2) from the right ventricle into the pulmonary trunk (stent diameter 5–6 mm, length 16 mm).


The procedure resulted in adequate palliation with good anterograde flow to the pulmonary arteries and near normal saturations in all three patients (>92%); there was no associated morbidity. Additional transvenous stenting was required in all patients because of progressive muscular infundibular stenosis after a median of 3 months. Two patients evolved to full repair at the age of 5 months and one patient with multiple hilar stenoses requires additional percutaneous procedures through the stented RV outflow tract.


Transventricular balloon dilation and stenting of the RVOT through medial sternotomy as initial palliation strategy appears a safe and well tolerated alternative treatment in small infants with TOF with PA and a hypoplastic pulmonary trunk. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.