• percutaneous coronary intervention;
  • saphenous vein graft;
  • internal mammary artery

Distal anastomotic lesions are the most common reason for venous and arterial graft failure. Redo coronary artery bypass surgery carries a higher risk for mortality and non-fatal myocardial infarction. Many operators therefore consider percutaneous coronary intervention as a good alternative for relieving angina symptoms in this subset of patients with anastomotic lesions. However, the best percutaneous method for treating these lesions is still controversial. Here we review reported data on the incidence, pathogenesis, and treatment of distal anastomotic lesions in both venous and arterial bypass grafts. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.