• PCI;
  • STEMI;
  • CTO;
  • multivessel disease


To determine the prevalence of a concurrent CTO in men and women and to examine its impact on mortality.


The impact of chronic total occlusion (CTO) in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) according to gender has not been assessed.


Patients referred with STEMI were categorized into single vessel disease (SVD), multivessel disease (MVD) without, with 1 or > 1 CTO. The primary end-point was the 1-year mortality.


Among the 2020 STEMI patients included between 2006 and 2011, 24% were female. Women were older, had more hypertension and renal failure (P < 0.0001 for all). The prevalence of 1 or > 1 concurrent CTO was similar in both sexes, 7 and 1%, respectively. Early and late mortality was significantly higher in women compared with men (P < 0.0001). In women, the mortality was significantly worse in patients with > 1 CTO (100%) and with 1 CTO (36.4%) compared with those with MVD without CTO (18.4%) or with SVD (10.4%) (P < 0.0001). MVD with and without concurrent CTO were both independent predictors of 1-year mortality in women (HR 3.58; 95 % CI 1.69–7.18 and HR 2.76; 95 % CI 1.33–5.51) whereas only MVD with CTO was predictive in men (HR 2.19; 95% CI 1.20–3.97).


Among unselected STEMI patients, the prevalence of CTO was equal in both sexes whereas early and late mortality remained significantly higher in women. Other factors than the presence of a concurrent CTO must be explored to explain differences in survival after STEMI between women and men. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.