Transvascular closure of single and multiple muscular ventricular septal defects in neonates and infants < 20 kg


  • Conflicts of interest: Nothing to report.



While surgical closure of ventricular septal defects (VSD) is still the gold standard, we review our experience with the interventional closure of single and multiple muscular VSD in newborns and infants under 20 kg.


Between 2004 and 2012 transcatheter closure of ten Swiss cheese VSD, six single muscular and one apical VSD was attempted in 17 patients between 10 days and 7.3 years of age and with a bodyweight ranging from 2.2 to 19 kg. Seven patients had had a significant shunt after cardiac surgery, five patients a shunt induced congestive heart failure and in five patients postponement of surgery was intended.


A total of 20 devices was successfully implanted in 15 of 17 (88%) patients, reducing the interventricular shunt and improving the haemodynamic situation in 14 patients. An acute AV-block led to immediate removal of the device in a patient of 2.2 kg. One Amplatzer muscular VSD occluder could not be delivered due to the sharp bending of the delivery sheath in 2004. Three patients died during follow-up not related to the intervention. Re-intervention was necessary in one patient with Swiss cheese VSD.


Interventional closure of muscular VSD is possible in newborns and infants and presents an eligible treatment option. New occlusion systems with miniaturized introducer sheaths of 4–6 French have extended the spectrum of treatable lesions. An individual and interdisciplinary risk-benefit stratification is required to choose from surgical, interventional, or combined strategies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.