Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia presenting with polyserositis due to an immune-mediated monocyte activation

Authors

  • Osamu Imataki,

    Corresponding author
    1. Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hematology, Rheumatology and Respiratory Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa, Japan
    • Correspondence

      Osamu Imataki, Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa, 761-0793, Japan. Tel: +81 878 91 2145; Fax: +81 878 91 2147; E-mail: oima@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp

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  • Naoki Watanabe,

    1. Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hematology, Rheumatology and Respiratory Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa, Japan
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  • Kensuke Matsumoto,

    1. Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hematology, Rheumatology and Respiratory Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa, Japan
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  • Makiko Uemura

    1. Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hematology, Rheumatology and Respiratory Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa, Japan
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Key Clinical Message

Monocytosis is often profoundly implicated in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). We diagnosed a 63-year-old woman with CMML involving heterochronological systemic polyserositis with infiltrating benign monocytes. The patient's pleural effusion was eliminated completely with corticosteroid therapy. We speculate that our case represents an immunological reaction with activated monocytes triggered by infection.

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