Fischer–Tropsch synthesis is a heterogeneous catalytic process for the production of clean hydrocarbon fuels or chemicals from synthesis gas (CO+H2), which can be derived from non-petroleum feedstocks such as natural gas, coal, or biomass. Fischer–Tropsch synthesis has received renewed interests in recent years because of the global demand for a decreased dependence on petroleum for production of fuels and chemicals. The product distributions with conventional Fischer–Tropsch catalysts usually follow the Anderson–Schulz–Flory distribution and are typically unselective with regards to the formation of hydrocarbons from methane to waxes. Selectivity control is one of the key challenges of research into Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. This Review article summarizes the effects of key factors on catalytic properties, particularly the product selectivity, and highlights recent developments of novel Fischer–Tropsch catalysts and new strategies with an aim at controlling the product selectivity.