The influence of carbon–silica hybrid supports on cobalt catalysts in Fischer–Tropsch synthesishas been investigated. Mesoporous carbon–silica hybrid supports were synthesized through a hydrogen-bonding-assisted self-assembly route by loading different amounts of silica (0 to 45 %) as a framework composition with mesoporous carbon. These carbon and hybrid supports were then impregnated with 15 wt. % cobalt and the resulting catalysts were characterized by various physicochemical, gravimetric, and spectroscopic methods. The dispersion of silica in the framework of mesoporous carbon modified the surface chemistry and enhanced the wetting properties of the support. Hence, the dispersion and reducibility of cobalt over the hybrid supports increased compared to those of the carbon-supported catalyst. However, above the optimum silica incorporation of 34 %, the possibility of phase separation and structural transformation of silica at the high carbonization temperature decreased the dispersion and reducibility of the supported Co catalysts. The carbon-supported catalyst showed a quick drop in the activity during the initial stages of the reaction due to the migration of cobalt particles over the hydrophobic and inert support surface. On the contrary, carbon–silica hybrid supports inhibited the mobility of cobalt particles and produced a higher density of active Co0 sites, leading to a higher initial activity. Carbon–silica-supported catalysts with a silica content of up to 34 % were found to exhibit excellent steady state Fischer–Tropsch synthesis activity and C5+ selectivity compared to only carbon and carbon–silica-supported catalyst with >34 % silica incorporation.